We¶ve come a long way, but sexism is still a very real problem.
³Sexism is not a glass ceiling; it¶s a labyrinth of microinequities that add up over a lifetime.´
Female (55%) and male (57%) senior managers aspire equally to the most senior role (CEO or equivalent), regardless of whether they have children under 18 living at home with them. (Catalyst Research)
But women face more barriers than their male counterparts:
Limited access to informal networks
60% percent of women feel excluded from formal and
Gender-based stereotyping Lack of role models Motherhood
barrier to advancement
informal networking opportunities, compared to 4% of men
1/3 of women cite a lack of influential mentors as a major
Women suffer a per child wage penalty of 5%, after
controlling for human capital and occupational factors (Budig & England, 2001; Anderson et al., 2003)
considerable progress over the last quarter century, women workers are still frequently perceived as less competent than men.
Resumes are evaluated more favorably when they
carry male rather than female names People more readily credit men with leadership ability and accept men as leaders. In one study where subjects were shown slides of a man seated at the head of a table for a meeting, they assumed that he was the leader. They did not make the same assumption when the person in that seat was a woman.
Columbia Journal of Gender and Law
particularly strong in settings where women are underrepresented (banking, technology) and too few counterexamples are present to challenge conventional assumptions. These settings often yield polarized assessment. Of average and below employees, women get disproportionately lower evaluations than their male counterparts.
Femininity: Mismatch between the qualities traditionally associated with women and those associated with professional success. BUT« women are punished when they adopt ³masculine´ styles of leadership.
Columbia Journal of Gender and Law.
are rated lower as leaders when they adopt authoritative, "masculine" styles, particularly when the evaluators are men, or when the role is one typically occupied by men. Women often internalize these stereotypes, which creates a psychological glass ceiling.
Stern students were given a case about a VC who maintains an extensive personal and professional network. The VC leverages this network to benefit both themselves and others.
section is given the case with protagonist as Howard Roizen, the other section given case with Heidi Roizen.
around since 1908, but only open to women since 1965 Women make up <40% students
30% of section B first year professors
only represented 6% 2009 Baker Scholars (highest honors) Of the students in the class of 2010 asked to leave at the end of their first year, 55% were women even though women only make up 38% of the class
want to believe that in the absence of special treatment, individuals generally get what they deserve. So if women are underrepresented in powerful positions, the ³meritocratic worldview´ explanation is that they lack the necessary qualifications. In turn, this prevents women from getting assignments that would demonstrate their capabilities, establishing a self-fulfilling cycle.
earnings difference between women and men varies with age, with younger women more closely approaching pay equity than older women.
Age Groups 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Women¶s % of Men¶s Earnings 92.5% 88.5% 74.5% 74.9% 75.4% 74.8% Catalyst Research, 2008
Ursula Burns Xerox
Indra Nooyi PepsiCo Carol Bartz, Yahoo!
Janet Robinson The New York Times
Irene Rosenfeld Kraft
As of January 2010, only15 FORTUNE 500 companies were run by women, and only 14 FORTUNE 5011000 companies had women CEOs
Some worry that progress has slowed«
Some worry that progress has slowed«
the successes of women leaders ±especially in stereotypically masculine fields Avoid making comments that objectify or demean women Support reversals of the traditional allocation of domestic roles
Encourage your employer to offer paid parental
leave for fathers
as a role-model and mentor to other women Negotiate your salary
Graduating masters students: 57% of men, 7% of
women negotiated above initial offer. Negotiators received $4000 more (Babcock and Laschever, 2003).
Encourage female-friendly policy