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Prism

Cube

Rectangular Parallelepiped

cylinder

Circular Cylinder

Right Circular Cylinder

Solid

Any three-dimensional figure

bounded by surfaces or plane

figures.

VOLUME

occupies.

Units of cubic length (cm3, m3, in3).

SURFACE

AREA

is

the

area

of

three-

dimensional surface.

Units of surface area (cm2, m2, in2).

SOLIDS

Lateral Surface area:

A3 + A4 + A5 +

A6

A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 +

Total Surface area:

A6

area1

area4 area6

area5

area3

area2

5

SOLIDS

PRISMS

in parallel planes, and the other faces are parallelograms.

SOLIDS

Properties:

the lateral area is the sum of the

areas of the remaining faces.

2. The altitude is the perpendicular

distance between the planes of its

bases.

3. A right section (K) of a prism is a

section perpendicular to the lateral

edges.

4. The intersections of the lateral

faces are called the lateral edges (e).

Prisms

Properties:

lateral edges are perpendicular to

its bases; its lateral faces are

rectangles..

6. The sections of a prism made

by parallel planes cutting all

lateral edges are equal polygons

9

Prisms

FORMULAS:

The volume of a prism is equal

to the product of the area of

the base and the altitude,

V = Bh.

B

10

Prisms

FORMULAS:

The volume of a prism is equal

to the product of a right section

and a lateral edge.

Volume

= right section

lateral edge

V = Ke.

B

11

Prisms

FORMULAS:

The lateral area of a prism is equal to the

product of the perimeter P of a right section

and the length e of a lateral edge

LSA = Pe

P

e

12

Prisms

FORMULAS:

The total surface

product of a lateral edge and the perimeter of

the right section plus twice the area of the

base.

B is the area of one base

Prisms

A formula that works for all prisms, regardless of the base shape is as follows:

PROBLEMS:

1. Write a formula for (a) the volume, (b) the total area,

of a right prism whose altitude is h and whose base is a

square of edge a.

2. A lead pencil whose ends are hexagons was cut from

a cylindrical piece of wood, with the least waste. If the

original piece was 8 in. long and in. in diameter, find

the volume of the pencil.

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

3. The base of a right triangular prism is a right triangle whose

legs are 24 m. and 32 m. respectively. If the lateral edge (height)

is 14 m., what is the total area of the prism?

( Ans: 2,112 sq.m. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

4. A masonry dam 40 ft. high has a uniform vertical cross

section. The dam is 4 ft. wide at the top, 10 ft. wide at the

bottom and is 80 ft. long. If its materials weigh 125 lbs. / cu. ft.,

find the weight of the dam.

( Ans: 4,000,000 lbs. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

5. The lateral surface of a concrete octagonal

pier of height 10 ft. is to be resurfaced. If each of

the base edges is 1 ft., how many square feet of

surfacing will be required?

( Ans: 80 sq. ft. )

6. One part of a quartz crystal is a hexagonal

prism with a right section of 1.29 sq. in., and an

edge of 2.31 in., and a base of 1.41 sq. in. Find

the altitude of the prism.

e

( Ans: 2.1134 in. )

K

B

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

7. The lateral area of a prism is 448 sq. m. If the lateral edge is

7 m., what is the perimeter of the right section?

( Ans: 64 m. )

8. Find the volume of the right triangular prism whose altitude is

15 cm. and whose base is an equilateral triangle with side 6 cm.

long.

( Ans: 234 cu.cm.. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

9. A trench is 180 ft. long and 12 ft. deep, 7 ft. wide at the top and

4 ft. at the bottom. How many cubic yards of earth have been

removed?

( Ans: 440 cu. yard )

10. A reservoir is shaped like a square prism. If the area of the

base is 225 sq. cm., how many liters of water will it hold if its

length is 1.5 meters?

(Ans: 33.75 L)

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

11. Find the volume of water in a swimming pool with vertical

ends and sides. The length measured at the water line is 50 ft.

and the breath is 20 ft. The bottom of the swimming pool is a

plane sloping gradually downward so that the depth of the

water at one end is 4 ft. and the other end is 8 ft.

( Ans: 6,000 cu. ft. )

12. What are the dimensions of a gallon can of uniform square

cross section whose height is twice the length of an edge of

the base? (One gallon = 231 cu. in.)

( Ans: 4.87 in. x 9.74 in.)

Prisms

PRISMS

PROBLEMS:

13. An irrigation canal is 200 m. long and 2 m. deep. It is 2 m.

wide at the top and 1 m. at the bottom. Find the volume

excavated to make the canal.

( Ans: 600 cu. m.)

14. A trough, whose ends are isosceles right triangles with vertical

axis, is 6 m. long. If it contains 150 L of water, how deep is the

water? ( 1 m3 = 1000L )

( Ans: 0.16 m.)

Prisms

PROBLEMS:

15. The trough shown in the figure has triangular ends which lie

in parallel planes. The top of the trough is a horizontal rectangle

20 in. by 33 in., and the depth of the trough is 16 in. (a) How

many gallons of water will it hold? (b) How many gallons does it

contain when the depth of the water is 10 in.? (c) What is the

depth of the water when the trough contains 3 gal.? (d) Find the

wetted surface when the depth of water is 9 in. ( One gallon =

231 cu. in. )

( Ans: 22.86 gal, 8.93 gal, 5.80 in., 801 sq. in.)

Prisms

25

Prisms

26

Prisms

27

Prisms

28

Prisms

29

Prisms

30

Prisms

31

CUBE

all squares.

Properties:

1. The three dimensions of a cube are equal to

each other.

2. All the faces of a cube are congruent squares.

32

CUBE

Volume (CUBE)

cube

= a3

LSA

cube

= 4a2

TSA

cube

= 6a2

33

CUBE

34

CUBE

PROBLEM SET:

1. How much material is needed in the

manufacture of 24 000 celluloid dice if

each die has an edge of in?

cube is twice the square of its diagonal,

(b) the volume of the cube is times the

cube of its diagonal.

35

CUBE

PROBLEM SET:

3. One cube has a face equivalent to the total area

of another cube. Find the ratio of their volumes.

36

CUBE

PROBLEM SET:

4. Find the volume and total area of the

largest cube of wood that can be cut

from a log of circular cross section

whose radius is 12.7 inches.

37

CUBE

PROBLEM SET:

5. What are the largest volume and surface

area of a cube that may be inscribed

inside a sphere whose volume equals 343

cu. in.?

38

CUBE

39

Rectangular Parallelepiped

RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED is a

polyhedron

whose

six faces are all

rectangles.

40

Rectangular Parallelepiped

DIAGONAL

LENGTH

RECTANGULAR SOLID

OF

h

w

l

41

Rectangular Parallelepiped

SOLID

h

w

l

LSA = 2 hw + 2 hl

TOTAL SURFACE AREA, TSA

TSA = 2 hw + 2 hl + 2lw

Rectangular Parallelepiped

42

VOLUMEOF

SOLID

RECTANGULAR

w

l

Vparallelepiped = l

wh

Rectangular Parallelepiped

43

The parallel edges are equal.

The opposite lateral faces are equal and parallel.

Any two opposite faces maybe taken as the bases.

44

Rectangular Parallelepiped

PROBLEM SET:

times the width and the height twice the width.

Find the volume and the length of its diagonal

the total surface area is

45

Rectangular Parallelepiped

PROBLEM SET:

2. Find the area of the triangular section of the

rectangular solid shown in the figure.

4

8

12

46

Rectangular Parallelepiped

feet long, 4 feet wide and 5/8 inch thick, if

the steel weighs 475 pounds per cubic ft?

47

4.

Given

the

volume

of

a

rectangular

parallelepiped as 810 cubic meter. Find the

dimensions if they are in the ratio 2:3:5

48

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