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Solids for Which V=bh

Prism
Cube
Rectangular Parallelepiped
cylinder
Circular Cylinder
Right Circular Cylinder

Solid
Any three-dimensional figure
bounded by surfaces or plane
figures.

Some examples of Solid Figures

VOLUMES AND SURFACE AREA

VOLUME

of a solid is the amount of space it

occupies.
Units of cubic length (cm3, m3, in3).

SURFACE

AREA

is

the

area

of

three-

dimensional surface.
Units of surface area (cm2, m2, in2).

SOLIDS

LATERAL SURFACE AREA AND TOTAL SURFACE AREA:


Lateral Surface area:
A3 + A4 + A5 +
A6
A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 +
Total Surface area:
A6
area1
area4 area6

area5

area3

area2
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SOLIDS

PRISMS

A PRISM is a polyhedron of which two faces are equal polygons


in parallel planes, and the other faces are parallelograms.

SOLIDS

Properties:

1. The bases are the equal polygons;


the lateral area is the sum of the
areas of the remaining faces.
2. The altitude is the perpendicular
distance between the planes of its
bases.
3. A right section (K) of a prism is a
section perpendicular to the lateral
edges.
4. The intersections of the lateral
faces are called the lateral edges (e).

Prisms

Properties:

5. A right prism is a prism whose


lateral edges are perpendicular to
its bases; its lateral faces are
rectangles..
6. The sections of a prism made
by parallel planes cutting all
lateral edges are equal polygons
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Prisms

FORMULAS:
The volume of a prism is equal
to the product of the area of
the base and the altitude,

Volume = base x altitude

V = Bh.

B
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Prisms

FORMULAS:
The volume of a prism is equal
to the product of a right section
and a lateral edge.

Volume

= right section
lateral edge

V = Ke.

B
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Prisms

FORMULAS:
The lateral area of a prism is equal to the
product of the perimeter P of a right section
and the length e of a lateral edge
LSA = Pe
P
e
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Prisms

FORMULAS:
The total surface

of a prism is equal to the


product of a lateral edge and the perimeter of
the right section plus twice the area of the
base.

Total surface Area :TSA = 2B+LSA


B is the area of one base

Prisms

A formula that works for all prisms, regardless of the base shape is as follows:

PROBLEMS:
1. Write a formula for (a) the volume, (b) the total area,
of a right prism whose altitude is h and whose base is a
square of edge a.
2. A lead pencil whose ends are hexagons was cut from
a cylindrical piece of wood, with the least waste. If the
original piece was 8 in. long and in. in diameter, find
the volume of the pencil.

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
3. The base of a right triangular prism is a right triangle whose
legs are 24 m. and 32 m. respectively. If the lateral edge (height)
is 14 m., what is the total area of the prism?
( Ans: 2,112 sq.m. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
4. A masonry dam 40 ft. high has a uniform vertical cross
section. The dam is 4 ft. wide at the top, 10 ft. wide at the
bottom and is 80 ft. long. If its materials weigh 125 lbs. / cu. ft.,
find the weight of the dam.
( Ans: 4,000,000 lbs. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
5. The lateral surface of a concrete octagonal
pier of height 10 ft. is to be resurfaced. If each of
the base edges is 1 ft., how many square feet of
surfacing will be required?
( Ans: 80 sq. ft. )
6. One part of a quartz crystal is a hexagonal
prism with a right section of 1.29 sq. in., and an
edge of 2.31 in., and a base of 1.41 sq. in. Find
the altitude of the prism.
e
( Ans: 2.1134 in. )

K
B

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
7. The lateral area of a prism is 448 sq. m. If the lateral edge is
7 m., what is the perimeter of the right section?
( Ans: 64 m. )
8. Find the volume of the right triangular prism whose altitude is
15 cm. and whose base is an equilateral triangle with side 6 cm.
long.
( Ans: 234 cu.cm.. )

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
9. A trench is 180 ft. long and 12 ft. deep, 7 ft. wide at the top and
4 ft. at the bottom. How many cubic yards of earth have been
removed?
( Ans: 440 cu. yard )
10. A reservoir is shaped like a square prism. If the area of the
base is 225 sq. cm., how many liters of water will it hold if its
length is 1.5 meters?
(Ans: 33.75 L)

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
11. Find the volume of water in a swimming pool with vertical
ends and sides. The length measured at the water line is 50 ft.
and the breath is 20 ft. The bottom of the swimming pool is a
plane sloping gradually downward so that the depth of the
water at one end is 4 ft. and the other end is 8 ft.
( Ans: 6,000 cu. ft. )
12. What are the dimensions of a gallon can of uniform square
cross section whose height is twice the length of an edge of
the base? (One gallon = 231 cu. in.)
( Ans: 4.87 in. x 9.74 in.)

Prisms

PRISMS

PROBLEMS:
13. An irrigation canal is 200 m. long and 2 m. deep. It is 2 m.
wide at the top and 1 m. at the bottom. Find the volume
excavated to make the canal.
( Ans: 600 cu. m.)
14. A trough, whose ends are isosceles right triangles with vertical
axis, is 6 m. long. If it contains 150 L of water, how deep is the
water? ( 1 m3 = 1000L )
( Ans: 0.16 m.)

Prisms

PROBLEMS:
15. The trough shown in the figure has triangular ends which lie
in parallel planes. The top of the trough is a horizontal rectangle
20 in. by 33 in., and the depth of the trough is 16 in. (a) How
many gallons of water will it hold? (b) How many gallons does it
contain when the depth of the water is 10 in.? (c) What is the
depth of the water when the trough contains 3 gal.? (d) Find the
wetted surface when the depth of water is 9 in. ( One gallon =
231 cu. in. )
( Ans: 22.86 gal, 8.93 gal, 5.80 in., 801 sq. in.)

Prisms

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Prisms

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Prisms

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Prisms

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Prisms

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Prisms

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Prisms

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CUBE

A CUBE is a polyhedron whose six faces are


all squares.
Properties:
1. The three dimensions of a cube are equal to
each other.
2. All the faces of a cube are congruent squares.

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CUBE

Volume (CUBE)

cube

= a3

LATERAL SURFACE AREA, LSA (CUBE)

LSA

cube

= 4a2

TOTAL SURFACE AREA, TSA (cube)

TSA

cube

= 6a2
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CUBE

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CUBE

PROBLEM SET:
1. How much material is needed in the
manufacture of 24 000 celluloid dice if
each die has an edge of in?

2. Show that (a) the total surface area of a


cube is twice the square of its diagonal,
(b) the volume of the cube is times the
cube of its diagonal.
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CUBE

PROBLEM SET:
3. One cube has a face equivalent to the total area
of another cube. Find the ratio of their volumes.

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CUBE

PROBLEM SET:
4. Find the volume and total area of the
largest cube of wood that can be cut
from a log of circular cross section
whose radius is 12.7 inches.

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CUBE

PROBLEM SET:
5. What are the largest volume and surface
area of a cube that may be inscribed
inside a sphere whose volume equals 343
cu. in.?

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CUBE

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED is a
polyhedron
whose
six faces are all
rectangles.

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

DIAGONAL
LENGTH
RECTANGULAR SOLID

OF

h
w
l

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

SURFACE AREA OF A RECTANGULAR


SOLID

h
w
l

LATERAL SURFACE AREA, LSA

LSA = 2 hw + 2 hl
TOTAL SURFACE AREA, TSA

TSA = 2 hw + 2 hl + 2lw

Rectangular Parallelepiped

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VOLUMEOF
SOLID

RECTANGULAR

w
l

Vparallelepiped = l
wh

Rectangular Parallelepiped

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Properties of Rectangular Parallelepiped:


The parallel edges are equal.
The opposite lateral faces are equal and parallel.
Any two opposite faces maybe taken as the bases.

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

PROBLEM SET:

1. The length of a rectangular solid is three


times the width and the height twice the width.
Find the volume and the length of its diagonal
the total surface area is

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

PROBLEM SET:
2. Find the area of the triangular section of the
rectangular solid shown in the figure.
4
8

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Rectangular Parallelepiped

3. What is the weight of the steel plate 15


feet long, 4 feet wide and 5/8 inch thick, if
the steel weighs 475 pounds per cubic ft?

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4.
Given
the
volume
of
a
rectangular
parallelepiped as 810 cubic meter. Find the
dimensions if they are in the ratio 2:3:5

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