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Methods of Research

Paradigms of

Classification of

1. According to objectives
a. Basic Research
b. Applied Research
c. Action Research
2. According to the no. of
a. Individual Research
b. Group Research

3. According to the place where

a. Lab Research
b. Field Research
c. Library Research
4. According the type of data
a. Analytical Research
b. Empirical Research

5. According to the medium of

a. Qualitative Research
b. Quantitative Research
6. According to the time span
a. Short Range Research
b. Long Range Research

7. According to the strategy employed

a. Descriptive Research
b. Historical Research
c. Experimental Research

8. According to the field of Research

8.1. based on SS and Business
a. Pure/Basic/Fundamental
- Theories
- Concepts
b. Applied Research
- Decision making Studies/Research
- Problem Solving Studies, etc

9. According to the method of data


a. Experimental
b. Non Experimental
- Observational
- Survey Studies
10. According to the Analytical Techniques
a. Statistical Inference
b. Simulation
c. Model Building

11. According to the method of

a. Inductive Research
b. Deductive Research
12. Time Dimensional
a. Longitudinal Research
b. Cross Sectional Research

Brief Definitions.

1. Basic Research

It generates new ideas, principles and theories,

which may not be utilized.

Todays computer could not exist with out the pure

research in maths conducted over a century ago.

2. Applied Research

This research is conducted to answer the

questions or make decisions about a particular
course of actions or policy.

An org with paperless office to conduct the study
to learn the amount of time its employees spend at
their PCs on average in a week.

3. Action Research
A study conducted to see the reaction of
any decision.

A study to see the reaction of customers after
and before fixing the price tags on the goods
to be sold.

4. Analytical Research
It includes mathematical , statistical models
analyses mainly based on secondary data.

5. Empirical Research
It is carried out on the basis of primary
data which includes surveys and
6. Descriptive Research
It describes the characteristics of a
population or phenomenon.
It deals with the answers to the:
Who, what, when, where, how
questions rather than why

Example of Descriptive Research:

Study on crimes in Karachi by street
- what types of crimes are committed?
- how frequently are these crimes
- when the crimes are committed?
- where the crimes are committed?
- by whom the crimes are committed?
- etc

7. Historical Research
It is based on past events. The
answer to the problem is past
Eco conditions of Pak during Zia

8. Experimental Research.
It is based to explain cause, effect,
and relationship between two or
more variables. This research is
future oriented.
A product with price tag could be sold
more than without it.

9. Longitudinal Research
Study of a sample on one or more than one
occasions. It is divided into three parts.

a. Time Series
In which the same type of info is
collected on a group of people or units
for multiple times.

To study the employees behavior before
and after change in Management

b. Panel
Here the researcher observes the same
people, a category of people who share a
similar life experience in a specified time
c. Cohort
Similar to panel study, but rather than
observing the exact same people, a
category of people who share a similar life
experience in a specified time period.

10. Cross Sectional Research

A study in which various segments of a
population are sampled at a single point of
A study in which data is collected just once
over a period of time. Such study is also
known as one shot studies.
Data collected from bank employees on the
basis of Junior, Senior, Male, Female, level

11. Exploratory Research:

This type of research is useful when the
researcher lacks clear idea of the problem.
In this type of study, researcher know so
little about the area of study that
hypothesis have not yet developed.

This type of research provides us the

general understanding of the Research

12. Case Study Method:

A research technique that intensively
investigates one or few situations.
1. Child labor in Pakistan: A Case Study of Khi.
2. Effects of motivation: A Case of Faculty
Members at SZABIST.
3. Agriculture Marketing in Pakistan: A Case
study of Sugarcane

Diff between qualitative

and quantitative

Qualitative Research:

It is an in-depth, holistic
(considering all factors) approach
to research focusing on descriptive
data in the form of words, figures,
graphs and descriptive statistics.

Quantitative Research:
An approach of research where
there is a use of an inferential

Quantitative & Qualitative

The difference is based on:

The View of Reality

Research Question
Sample Size
Research Tools
Data Analysis
Quality of Research

i. Quantitative Research
ii. Qualitative Research
a. The view of reality

It views reality as absolute truth based

on proven facts and evidences.

ii. It believes in multiple judgment, opinion

or feelings which exists in peoples

b. Research Question
i. Research is started with set of hypothesis.
ii. May start with the set of questions.

C. Sample Size
i. Sample size should be large.
The larger the sample size, the better the
chances of generalizing results.
ii. Sample size is not the problem. We can
even have one student as a case study.

D. Research Tools
i. Structured interview
ii. Open ended Interview

E. Data Analysis
i. Variables are amenable to statistical
ii. The analyses is subjective/one
interpretation and analysis etc.

F. Conclusion:
a. No paradigm is superior or inferior.
Selection of the paradigm depends up
- Purpose of research
- Nature of research question etc.
b. Can use separate or both research
c. Two paradigms are diff to each other.
d. Both are very widely used.
e. Both are equally important.

Types/Classification of
Two Paradigms of Research
Qualitative Research

Quantitative Research

Descriptive Research
Historical Research
Exploratory Research
Inductive Research
Deductive Research
Empirical Research
Analytical Research
Basic Research

Theories of Research

Methods of Research

2. Empiricist

3. Feminist

1. Interpretivist


When people have diff meaning to a
action, it is interpretive.
Example: Interpretation of Islam by Shias

1.A. Phenomenologist
Theorists believe that the practitioner/s
who is/are involved in the activity may be
right depending what values he or she
attaches with the activity.
1. Father sacrifices for the wellbeing of
[National geographic].

1.b. Symbolic (Anthropology)

They believe that when there is fixed/same/one
meaning of any activity, it is symbolic
Example: Traffic signs/signals

2. Empiricist
2.1. Positivism

2.3 Realistic Theory

2.2 Grounded Methodology

- Observation
- Participant Observation (clinic patients)

2. Empiricist
Empiricists believe that SS can not be
regarded as science because it relies on
people who give subjective (one
sided/biased) answers which can change
from time and place.
2.1. Positivism (linguistic)
This ideology is based on empirical
evidence i.e
it is observable and can be
The methodology based on empirical
evidence and which is observable and can be
They use more testable and quantifiable

2.2 Grounded Methodology (Deductive and Inductive)

- Observation
- Participant Observation (clinic patients)
Grounded Theory
A research method in which the theory is developed from the data,
rather than the other way around. That makes this is an inductive
approach, meaning that it moves from the specific to the more
This approach is a qualitative research method that uses a
systematic set of procedures to develop an inductively derived
grounded theory about a phenomenon.
A systematic research methodology in the social sciences developed
by the sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss emphasizing
generation of theory from data. Their collaboration in research on
dying hospital patients led them to write the book
Awareness of Dying. In this research they developed the constant
comparative method later known as Grounded Theory.

2.3 Realistic Theory/ Social Action Theory

Research which is based only on observations.

Researchers find problem, look at

effects, and find solution.

World Bank Team [water/socialization]
Problem: lacking of water
Effects: women travel lot to find water
Solution: Water at door step

They believe that every research has
been done from male perspective and
they ignore the female perspective by
employing female as passive object.

Thank you