Bio Metrics Technology PPT by Pavan Kumar M.T.

Outline:         Introduction History Characteristics of Biometrics Working Principle of Biometrics Classification of Biometrics System Accuracy Comparison of Various Biometrics

Technology Applications Conclusion

What is biometrics? Why biometrics?

Levels of Security

The ancient Egyptians and the Chinese played a large role in biometrics history.  Biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in china in the 14th century.  Bertillon developed measurements . a technique of multiple body 

A system called ³Indentimat´ which measured shape of the hand and length of fingers was introduced in 1970s.

Characteristics of Biometrics 
Any human characteristic can qualify as a biometric characteristic as long as it satisfies the following requirements: Universality  Distinctiveness  Permanence  Collectability

Working of Biometrics System

Classification of Biometrics
1. Physiological ± related to shape of the body.     2.    Fingerprint Facial recognisation Hand geometry Iris recognisation Behavioral ± related to the behavior of the person. Speaker recognisation Signature recognisation Gesture recognisation

Fingerprint Recognisation 
A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the finger.  Ridge ending, ridge bifurcation and minutiae points.  Algorithm is developed to distinguish whorl, arch and loop.

Face Recognisation 
Analyze the unique shape, pattern and positioning of the facial features.  Face recognition is non-intrusive.  There are about 80 peaks and valleys on a human face.

A face recognition system consists of the following modules: Sensor module.  Face detection and feature extraction module.  Classification module.  A face detection algorithms can be divided into three categories according to  Knowledge-based methods.  Feature invariant approaches.  Template-based methods.

Hand Geometry 
Based on a number of measurements taken from the human hand.  The technique is very simple, relatively easy to use, and inexpensive.  The physical size of a hand geometry-based system is large.

Iris Recognisation 
The iris of each eye of each person is absolutely unique. This even applies to identical twins.  Have over 200 unique spots and highly accurate technology.  The false acceptance rate for iris recognition systems is 1 in 1.2 million.

Speaker Recognisation 
Uses individual¶s voice for recognisation purposes.  Voice sample.  Depending on authentication domain  Fixed text method.  Text dependent.  Text independent.

Signature Recognisation 
Measures and analyze the physical activity of signing.  Banking or finance related applications.

Multimodal Biometrics System 
It utilize more than one physiological or behavioral

characteristic for enrollment, verification or identification. 

This system takes advantage of the capabilities of each individual biometric. 

It can be used to overcome some of the limitations of a single biometrics.

Gesture Recognisation 
    Use of motions to communicate. Interact naturally without any mechanical devices. Depth-aware cameras. Stereo cameras. Controller based Gestures.

System Accuracy 
Accuracy or performance of biometric systems is measured with three factors: False acceptance rate (FAR)  False rejection rate (FRR)  Equal Error Rate (EER)

System Accuracy Curve

Misidentification Rate
Iris Recognition Fingerprinting Facial Recognition

Coded Pattern
Iris pattern Fingerprints Outline, shape and distribution of eyes and nose Shape of letters, writing order, pen pressure Voice characteristics

Misidentification Rate
1/1,200,000 1/1,000

1/100 1/100

Signature Voice printing


Comparison of Biometrics Technology
Biometrics Univers ality Fingerprint Face Hand geometry Iris Voice Signature M H M H M L Uniquen ess H L M H L L Perman ence H M M H L L Collectab Perform ility ance M H H M M H H L M H L L Accept ability M H M L H H Circum vention H L M H L H

1. Eye-gazed System: The Eye gaze Edge uses the pupil-center/corneal-reflection method to determine where the user is looking on the screen.

Portable Eye gaze System Mounted on Wheelchair

2. Television Controlled by Hand Gestures: Canesta 3D sensor  CMOS Chip Technology

3. Mimi Switch: It uses infrared sensors.  It stores and even interpret data.  Can be used as a safety measure.

4. Controller Free Gaming: Project Natal is the name for a controller free Gaming.  Using gestures and spoken commands.  Depth Sensor.

Biometrics is an emerging area with many opportunities for growth.  Not to remember passwords.  User friendliness.  A new way to interact with devices.

1. A. Jain et al: ³BIOMETRICS: Personal Identification in Networked Society´, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, ISBN0-7923-8345-1. 2. S. Prabhakar, S. Pankanti, and A. K. Jain, ³Biometric Recognition: Security and Privacy Concerns´, IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 33-42, 2003. 3. http:// 4. 5. 6.


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