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CHAPTER 4

GENERAL
FEATURES
OF CELLS

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Learning outcomes
Section 4.2
1. Compare and contrast the general
structural features of prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells
2. Explain how the proteome underlies the
structure and function of cells
3. State the cell theory and explain its
meaning
4. Define the vocabulary terms introduced
in this chapter
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Define the term “genome”
1. The entire complement of a species
genetic material.
2. Every living cell contains a copy of its
genome.
3. Genes, within each species’ genome,
contains the information to create cells
with particular structures and functions.
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Define: proteome of a cell
1. All the types and relative amounts
of proteins that are made in a
particular cell at a particular time
and under specific conditions.
2. Determines a cell’s structure and
function.

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Prokaryotic = Before the nucleus What are the 2 categories of prokaryotes ? • bacteria and archaea Which type of environment is usually home to Archaea ? • extreme environments 5 .

Describe the organization of prokaryotic cells 6 .

in ribosomes and in the cytoplasm 7 7 . Do Prokaryotic cells have DNA ? A. NO C. Only in ribosomes D. Yes. YES B.Question 1.

Compare the organization of animal and plant eukaryotic cells 8 .

• Plasma membrane • Nucleus with nucleolus • Ribosomes • Mitochondria • Lysosomes • Endoplasmic Reticulum (R&S) • Golgi Body • Peroxisomes • Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic Animal Cell 9 .

• • • • • • • • • • • • Cell Wall Plasma membrane Nucleus with nucleolus Ribosomes Mitochondria Chloroplasts Vacuoles Lysosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum (R&S) Golgi Body Peroxisomes Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic Plant Cell 10 .

11 .Compare and contrast basic cell structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

3 1. Describe the three types of protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton and list their functions 3. Explain how motor proteins interact with microtubules or actin filaments to promote cellular movement 4. Identify the location of the cytosol in an eukaryotic cell and list its functions 2. Define axoneme and explain its importance in flagella and cilia 12 .Learning Outcomes Section 4.

includes the endomembrane system and the semiautonomous organelles What is the cytoplasm of a cell ? • Cytoplasm includes everything inside the plasma membrane 13 .Define cytosol and the cytoplasm What is the Cytosol of a cell and where is it located ? • Region of a eukaryotic cell that is outside the cell organelles but inside the plasma membrane.

There are the 3 three types of protein filaments that makeup the cytoskeleton of the cell • Microtubules – Cell shape – Chromosome sorting – Intracellular movement of cargo – Centrosome or microtubule-organizing center in animals 14 .List important cytoskeleton elements and explain their function.

Intermediate filaments Cell shape Anchorage of cell & nuclear membranes Actin filaments Cell shape & movement Cell division Intracellular movement of cargo 15 .

Motor Proteins 16 .

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKW4F0Nu-UY 18 .

Identify three important functions of the plasma membrane 19 . Describe the structure and organization of the cell nucleus 2.4: Nucleus and endomembrane system 1.Learning Outcomes Section 4. Outline the structures and general functions of the components of the endomembrane system 3. Distinguish between the difference between the structure and function of smooth and rough ER 4.

etc.Nuclear envelope Function of the nuclear envelope Keep DNA inside & allow RNA. ribosomes. proteins. to pass in & out 20 .

Function of the nucleolus • Site for Ribosome assembly 21 .

Identify the different parts of the endomembrane system and know their functions Organelles involved in the endomembrane system • Nuclear membrane • Endoplasmic reticulum • Golgi apparatus • Lysosomes • Peroxisomes • Vacuoles 22 .

Endoplasmic reticulum: rough & smooth 23 .

synthesis and modification of lipids 24 . Network of membranes that form flattened. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) – Studded with ribosomes – Involved in protein synthesis and sorting C.Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) A. carbohydrate metabolism. calcium balance. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) – Lacks ribosomes – Detoxification. fluid-filled tubules or cisternae B.

Prokaryotic ribosomes are in the cytoplasm and some are attached to the plasma membrane 25 .Describe the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis Function of a ribosome is to synthesize proteins Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have ribosomes Eukaryotic ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm. in mitochondria and chloroplasts. on rough endoplasmic reticulum.

processing. and protein sorting 26 . membrane-bounded compartments. which are not continuous with the ER • Function: Secretion.Golgi Body (Apparatus) • Stack of flattened.

typically those that break down molecules by removing hydrogen or adding oxygen 27 .Peroxisomes Found in all eukaryotic cells Catalyze chemical reactions.

nucleic acids. carbohydrates. and lipids • Autophagy: cells recycling system 28 .Lysosomes • Contain acid hydrolases that perform hydrolysis • Break down proteins.

Vacuoles • Central vacuoles in plants for storage and support • Contractile vacuoles in protists for expelling excess water • Phagocytic vacuoles in protists and white blood cells for degradation 29 .

Why do cells need a plasma membrane ? • Boundary between the cell and the extracellular environment • Membrane transport in and out of cell – Selectively permeable • Cell signaling using receptors • Cell adhesion 30 .

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Discuss the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory 32 . Outline the structures and general functions of mitochondria and chloroplasts 2.5: Semiautonomous Organelles 1.Learning Outcomes Section 4.

Define the term semiautonomous and outline the general functions of organelles in this category. and peroxisomes What does it mean to be semiautonomous ? • Can reproduce. • Mitochondria. but need direction and materials from the cell. Has its own DNA. RNA and makes proteins 33 . chloroplasts.

modification.Mitochondria • Composed of – Outer and inner membrane – Intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix • Functions of the mitochondria ? – Primary role is to make ATP – synthesis. and breakdown of several types of cellular molecules – Generate heat in brown fat cells 34 .

youtube.http://www.com/watch?v=8NvK4PUgzmY& feature=related 35 .

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Compare & contrast grana) chloroplasts and mitochondria. the thylakoid membrane. forms flattened tubules that stack to form a granum (plural.Chloroplast • Outer and inner membrane with an intermembrane space • Third membrane. • Function: Photosynthesis 37 .

Describe the steps that occur during the cotranslational sorting of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum 3.6: Protein Sorting to Organelles 1. Outline the steps of post-translational sorting of proteins to mitochondria 38 .Learning Outcomes Section 4. List which categories of proteins are sorted cotranslationally and which are sorted posttranslationally 2. Explain how porteins are moved via vesicles through the endomembrane system 4.

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Cotranslational sorting: proteins to the ER 40 .

Post-translational sorting of protein to the mitochondrial matrix 41 .

Endosymbiosis Theory 42 .

The function of chaperone proteins 43 .

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