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The Chemical Basis of

Life II:
Organic Molecules
Chapter 3


Learning Outcomes by section
3.1 The Carbon Atom and the study
of organic molecules
1. Explain the properties of carbon that
make it the chemical basis of all life
2. Describe the variety and chemical
characteristics of common functional
groups of organic compounds.
3. Compare and contrast the different
types of isomeric compounds.

Organic Molecules: carbon-containing
Macromolecules: large, complex
compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates,
proteins and nucleic acids
Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds with
other atoms


Hydrocarbons: molecules with predominantly
or entirely H-C bonds are nonpolar (H & C have
similar electronegativity) C-O or C-N form polar
covalent bonds
Carbon-carbon bonds are short bonds, very
stable and strong


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same chemical formula.Structural isomers: contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships. Enantiomer: mirror images 6 .

2.2 Formation of Organic Molecules and Macromolecules 1.Learning Outcomes by Section 3. List the four major classes of organic molecules and macromolecules found in living 7 . Diagram how small molecules may be assembled into larger ones by dehydration reactions and how hydrolysis reactions can reverse this process.

The term dehydration reaction is used when organic molecules form because a 8 .Large molecules (polymers) are formed by the linking together of small molecules (monomers). • Monomer means one part • Polymer means many parts Condensation reaction (dehydration reaction): the chemical process by which two or more molecules combine into a larger one.

New bond is formed between the two monomers 9 .

Hydrolysis reaction: the chemical process by which a polymer is broken down into monomers. A water molecule is added during this reaction. • Dehydration and hydrolysis are both catalyzed by enzymes 10 .

The Four major classes of organic molecules and macromolecules found in living organisms are: 1. Proteins 4. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Nucleic acids 11 .

including monosaccharides. Relate the functions of plant and animal polysaccharides to their structure. and polysaccharides.3 Carbohydrates 1. 2. Distinguish among different forms of carbohydrate molecules. disaccharides.Learning Outcomes by Section 3. 12 .

hydrogen.What atoms bind together to make Carbohydrates? • carbon. and oxygen atoms What is the “generic” molecular formula for a carbohydrate ? • Cn(H2O)n What is the important functional group in carbohydrates ? • Most of the carbon atoms in a 13 .

Numbering 14 .glucose (C6H12O6) • Different ways to depict structures – Ring or linear. ribose – (C5H10O4) deoxyribose – Hexose.Monosaccharides are • Simplest sugars • Most common are 5 or 6 carbons – Pentoses– (C5H10O5).

Glucose isomers: numbering 15 .

Number the carbons on the deoxyribose ring 16 .

Number the carbons on the deoxyribose ring 5 1 4 3 2 17 .

Questions you should answer What type of molecule is glucose? What is the difference between D-glucose and L-glucose ? Which is the correct naming if the numbering of a molecule goes in a clockwise direction ? D or L ? 18 .

19 .How are Disaccharides related to monosaccharides ? • Disaccharides are Carbohydrates composed of two monosaccharides • Joined by dehydration or condensation reaction--> covalent bonding between OH groups (energy store) • Broken apart by hydrolysis – gives off energy + uses water.

What are Polysaccharides? • Many monosaccharides linked together to form long polymers 20 .

Question you should answer How would you break up a disaccharide into two monosaccharides ? Why would a biological organism need to break a polysaccharide into its monomer forms ? Why would a biological organism need to make a polysaccharide from monosaccharides ? 21 .

Explain why some fats are saturated and some are nonsaturated 3. 22 .4 Lipids 1. List the several different classes of lipid molecules important in living organisms 2. label the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions.Learning Outcomes by Section 3. 4. Explain how phospholipids function in the formation of cellular membranes 5. Describe the nature of steroids and give an example of a steroid and its function. Diagram a phospholipid.

phospholipids.The defining feature of lipids is that they are nonpolar and insoluble in water Lipids include: triglycerides (fats). steroids and waxes Triglycerides (fats) are formed by bonding 3 fatty acid chains to glycerol molecules 23 .

Saturated.all carbons are linked by single covalent bonds • Tend to be solid at room temperature Unsaturated.contain one or more double bonds • 1 double bondmonounsaturated • 2 or more – polyunsaturated • Tend to be liquids at room temperature (oils) 24 .

hydrophobic 25 . 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group • Amphipathic molecule – Phosphate regionpolar.Phospholipids : think membranes ! • Glycerol. hydrophilic – Fatty acid chainsnonpolar.

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What are Steroids ? Lipids in ring form • Four interconnected rings of carbon atoms • Usually not very water soluble • Cholesterol • Estrogen and testosterone differ only slightly Are polysaccharides larger than steroids ? 27 .

Describe the levels of protein structure and the factors that determine them 4.5 Proteins 1. Outline the bonding forces important in determining protein shape and function 28 . and distinguish between a polypeptide and protein 3.Learning Outcomes by Section 3. Give examples of general types of functions that are carried out by different types of proteins 2. Explain how amino acids are joined to form a polypeptide.

Know the category and functions of proteins. be able to give an example of each category and its function 29 .

The monomer of a protein is an amino acid 30 .

Amino acids are joined together by a dehydration reaction that links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid The covalent bond formed between the two amino acids is called a peptide bond 31 .

There are 20 different amino acids used to make proteins 32 .

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The four structures of proteins are determined by Primary structure: amino acid sequence. ultimately determined by DNA Secondary structure: alpha helix and beta pleated sheets are formed by hydrogen bonding Tertiary structure: reaction between R groups of amino acids 35 .

Hydrogen bonds 2. Disulfide bridges The first four factors are also important in protein to protein interactions 36 . Van der Waals forces 5. Ionic bonds and other polar interactions 3. Hydrophobic effects 4.Protein Structure is influenced by 1.

6 Nucleic Acids 1.Describe the three components of nucleotides 2.Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA 3.Learning Outcomes by Section 3.Describe how certain bases pair with others in DNA and RNA 37 .

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