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CHAPTER 5

MEMBRANE
STRUCTURE
AND TRANSPORT

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Learning Outcomes
5.2. Membrane Structure
1. Describe the fluid-mosaic model of
membranes
2. List the various molecules that make up a
membrane
3. Identify the three different types of membrane
proteins

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Components of a membrane
1. Phospholipids
2. Proteins
3. Lipids
4. Cholesterol

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Phospholipids are considered amphipathic molecules because they have polar and nonpolar regions Nonpolar regions are Hydrophobic (water fearing) Polar regions are Hydrophilic (water loving) 5 .

Types of proteins found associated with membranes Integral membrane proteins • Protein that crosses into or through the lipid portion of a membrane • Transmembrane proteins go through the entire membrane • Lipid anchors Peripheral membrane protein • Attached to an integral membrane protein • Attached to a phospholipid • Attached to a portion of the cytoskeleton 6 .

Questions What type of molecules make up a membrane ? Why would it be improbable that a nonpolar protein could pass through the entire plasma membrane? Would a protein that is passing through the lipid section of a membrane be polar or nonpolar ? Could an integral protein only pass through a small section of membrane ? 7 .

Proteins have three different ways of associating with a membrane 8 .

2 Fluidity of Membranes 1. Describe a lipid raft 9 .Learning Outcomes 5. Analyze how membrane fluidity is affected by lipid composition 3. Describe the fluidity of membranes by explaining lateral movement in a membrane and the function of the Flippase enzyme 2.

Experiments on Lateral Transport • Larry Frye and • Michael Edidin Explain why H-2 proteins are found only on one side of the cell when the cells were incubated at 0˚C 10 .

Describe the factors involved in membrane fluidity Fry showed that • individual molecules remain in close association yet have the ability to readily move within the membrane • This includes phospholipids and nonanchored proteins – Turn around – Move laterally 11 .

Phospholipid molecule can “flipflop” in a membrane BUT • it takes an enzyme and energy to allow this to happen The enzyme used to allow this to happen is called Flippase The cellular energy is ATP 12 .

making it more difficult for neighboring tails to interact and making the bilayer more fluid • Amount of cholesterol 13 . which makes the membrane more fluid • Presence of double bonds in the acyl tails – Double bond creates a kink in the fatty acyl tail.Membranes are fluid. but what could affect “how much” fluidity they have ? • Length of fatty acyl tails – Shorter acyl tails are less likely to interact.

Spin around in place D. Flip from one leaflet to another in the cell membrane without any enzyme or ATP B. Move laterally throughout the membrane E.Question Frye found that phospholipids could … A. Move to the inside of the cell and enter the cytoplasm C. C & D 14 .

FRAP • Watt Webb and colleagues used Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) Explain how this experiment shows lateral movement of membrane proteins 15 .

Movement of Membrane Proteins • Depending on the cell type. 10–70% of membrane proteins may be restricted in their movement • Integral membrane proteins may be bound to components of the cytoskeleton – restricts the proteins from moving laterally • Membrane proteins may be attached to molecules that are outside the cell – such as the interconnected network of proteins that forms the extracellular matrix 16 .

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Outline the synthesis of lipids at the ER membrane 2.3 Synthesis of Membrane Components in Eukaryotic Cells 1. Describe the process of glycosylation and the functional consequences 19 .Learning Outcomes 5. Explain how transmembrane proteins are inserted into the ER membrane 3.

1 polar head group 20 . one phosphate. 1 glycerol.Lipid Synthesis at the ER membrane Building blocks for phospholipids: 2 fatty acids w actyl tail.

or plasma membrane • Lipid exchange proteins extract a lipid from one membrane. diffuse through the cell and insert the lipid to another membrane • ER to mitochondria • Chloroplasts and mitochondria to other cell organelles 21 . lysosomes.Lipids made in the ER are transferred to other membranes • Diffuse laterally to the nuclear envelope • Transported via vesicles to the Golgi. vacuoles.

Most Transmembrane Proteins are First Inserted into the ER Membrane 22 .

Glycosylation: function • Glycolipids & glycoproteins play a role in cell surface recognition • Protective effect: glycocalyx Glycosylation: process • N-linked: attachment of a carbohydrate to the amino acid asparagine • O-linked: occurs only in the Golgi apparatus • Production of proteoglycans (mucus. saliva…) 23 .

N-linked glycosylation 24 .

Selectively Permeable • Membrane ensures … – Essential molecules enter – Metabolic intermediates remain – Waste products exit 25 .

Hydrophobic interior 26 .

Diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the aid of a transport protein (no energy needed) 27 . passive transport.Diffusion of a solute through a membrane without transport protein or energy • Facilitated diffusion. facilitated diffusion.Compare & contrast diffusion. & active transport What is Diffusion ? • Movement of solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration • Passive diffusion.

Questions Which diagram shows simple diffusion ? Which diagram shows facilitated diffusion ? A B 28 .

Concentration gradient D. Use of energy (ATP) 29 . No What drives the movement of these molecules from one side of the membrane to the other ? C.Questions Is energy needed for either type of transport ? A. Yes B.

The rate of diffusion depend on 1. temperature of the solution 3. diameter of the molecules or ions 2. electric charge of substance diffusion 4. concentration gradient in the system 30 .

Outside the cell Inside the cell The solution and cell are isotonic Isotonic Hypertonic The solution is hypertonic to the cell Hypotonic The solution is hypotonic to the cell 31 .

Explain the difference between osmosis and simple diffusion • Water diffusing through a membrane from an area with more water to an area with less water • If the solutes cannot move. water movement tries to bring the solution of the cell into balance with the external environment • The cell shrinks or swells as water leaves or enters the cell 32 .Objective # 6 Define Osmosis.

More solutes outside than inside Less solutes outside than inside Explain why the red blood cell shrinks in hypertonic solution. 33 . Explain why the red blood cell bursts in hypotonic solution.

Water can also enter or exit a cell through proteins called Aquaporins • CHIP28 • Membrane protein .

Objective # 7 List 5 types of channel proteins and describe how they function Types of Channel Proteins 1. Mechano-sensitive 35 . Ligand gated 2. Phosphorylated 4. Voltage gated 5. Intracellular regulatory 3.

36 . How does a channel function ? Form an open passageway for the direct diffusion of ions or molecules across the membrane Solute diffuses: with the concentration gradient !! No energy needed.

What are the types of gated channels and how does each function ? Ligand-gated: a channel controlled by the noncovalent binding of small molecules (ligands) ie. ions Intracellular regulatory proteins: proteins bind to channels. control their ability to open and close Phosphorylation: ATP Voltage-gated: opens or closes in response to changes in the amount of electric charge across the membrane Mechanosensitive channels: sensitive to changes in membrane tension 37 .

amino acids. such as sugars. transports solute • Principal pathway for the uptake of organic molecules. and nucleotides • Key role in export of materials 38 .Objective # 8: Describe how carrier proteins function • Proteins change shape to move a molecule across a membrane • Conformational change in protein channel.

Three Ways Transporter Proteins Function – Uniporter • single molecule or ion – Symporter/ cotransporter • 2 or more ions or molecules transported in same direction – Antiporter • 2 or more ions or molecules transported in opposite directions What main principle do these transporter molecules work on ? 39 Conformational change .

youtube.Objective # 9: Describe the functioning of the Na+/K+ pump.com/watch?v=GTHWig1vOnY 40 . http://www.

Objective # 10   Describe the difference between Primary and  Secondary Active Transport  Primary active transport Directly use energy to transport solute Secondary active transport Uses pre-existing gradient to drive transport of solute 41 .

What is Active transport ? • Movement of a solute across a membrane against its concentration gradient: from a region of low concentration to higher concentration • Energetically unfavorable and requires the input of energy 42 .

Active Transport:  requires energy (ATP) and  protein carriers Primary Active Transport:  requires ATP to move  ions against a concentration gradient. 43 .

44 .Explain what happens to the transport protein when a phosphate is attached.

• Secondary Active Transport Does not use  ATP directly • Secondary Utilizes a pre­existing gradient to  drive the active transport of a solute 45 .

Explain. during Secondary active transport. How do they differ ? 46 . in detail. what occurs during Primary active transport.

If a cell had ATP and Na+ ions. but K+ ions were  missing.1. how far through the reaction mechanism  could the pump proceed ? 47 . How does the sodium­potassium pump build up a  concentration gradient so that a secondary active  transport system works without the input of energy? 2.

ATP-Driven Ion Pumps Generate Ion Electrochemical Gradients • Na+/K+-ATPase 48 .

Table 5. H+ gradients intermediates are used to synthesize ATP Regulation of cytostolic pH Transporters sense pH changes and regulate the internal pH of the cell Osmotic regulation Animal cells control their internal volume by regulating ion gradients between the cytosol and extracellular fluid Nerve signaling Na+ and K+ gradients are involved in conducting action potentials Muscle contraction CA2+ gradients regulate the ability of muscle fibers to contract Bacterial swimming H+ gradients drive the rotation of bacterial flagella 49 .4: Important functions of ion electrochemical gradients Function Description Transport of ions molecules Symporters and antiporters use H+ and Na+ and gradients to take up nutrients and export waste Production of energy In the mitochondrion and chloroplast.