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Alloy Systems

Alloy Formation
-an element that possesses certain
properties which are referred to as the
metallic properties.
-posses metallic luster, more or less ductility,
and considerable ability to conduct heat
and electricity
-electropositive as distinguished from
nonmetallic elements.

Alloy Formation
-a combination of elements which also
possesses metallic properties
-at least one of the elements forming the
alloy is a metal
-the other elements in the alloy may or may
not be metallic
-most of the metallic materials used in
engineering are alloys

States of Matter
-may be defined as a homogeneous
physically distinct portion of a system.
-a portion of objective space within specified
boundaries which is being considered

Solid Solutions
-an alloy prepared from two metals, such as
gold and silver or copper and nickel, will be
found to be homogeneous. The grains will
be similar in appearance to the grains of a
pure metal
-when a solid solution is formed, the crystal
structure of the combination is that of the
solvent component, and the atoms of the
solute are incorporated in that structure.

Solid Solutions
Substitutional solid solution- solute
atoms may replace some of the solvent
atoms in the lattice structure
- Interstitial solid solution- solute atoms
occupy positions intermediate to that of the
normal atom positions in the lattice of the

The complete solubility of two metals in the solid
state will occur only if the crystal sructures of
these two metals are essentially the same. In
general, solubility tends to be favored when the
crystal structure of these two metals is of the
same type.
However, there are factors to be considered in
determining the probable solubilty of metals.




The relative atomic diameters of solvent

and solute atoms.
The negative electronegative valency of
solvent and solute atoms.
The relative valence of solute and
solvent atoms.

- Is favored when the difference in atomic
diameter of the solute and solvent atoms is
less than approximately 14 or 15 percent.
In general, the more electronegative the
solute and the more electropositive the
solvent, the greater are the forces tending
to produce a stable bond between the

When solidification occurs in alloys of the
type in which the components are not
completely soluble in the solid state, the
phases may be arranged in a unique
manner to form the structure. The unique
aggregations of these phases are referred
as structural constituents.

Is defined as an intimate mechanical
mixture of two or more phases having a
definite composition and a definite freezing
or melting point.

The phases in Eutectic are

usually arranged in one of these
two ways:


One case globules of one phase are

surrounded by other phase.
Lamellar structures may be formed
consisting of alternate plate-like crystals of
two phase.

Eutectic Mixture Samples:

is a phase transition in which a liquid turns
into a solid when its temperature is lowered
below its freezing point.
to makesolid; make into a hard or compact
mass; change from a liquid or gaseous to

In the process of solidification, a metal

always forms crystals characteristics of the
particular metal. It is composed of an array
of atoms geometrically arranged in the

Coordination Number
Each atom has a specified number of close
neighbors. The number of closest neighbors
to an atom in a crystal is called the
coordination number


Preferential method of growth leads to a

skeletal type of development.


Phase Equilibrium
Plot of the composition of phases as a
function of temperature in any alloy system
under equilibrium conditions.
May be classified according to the relation
of the components in the liquid and solid

Classification of EQ

Components completely soluble in the liquid

a) Completely soluble in the solid state.
b) Partly soluble in the solid state
c) Insoluble in the solid state


Components partially soluble in the liquid

a) Completely soluble in solid state.
b) Partly soluble in solid state.


Components completely insoluble in the

liquid state.
a) Completely insoluble in the solid state

Cooling curves
Able to plot the measurement of the
temperature as a function of time at which
phase changes.
Useful in studying the changes that occur
during the solidification of alloys

Phase rule
The condition of equilibrium for a system is
determined by a relation between the
number of coexisting phases, the number of
components, and the number of variables.
Variables: temperature, pressure,
concentration of components in each phase

Components Soluble in Liquid

State and Insoluble in Solid State

A system that is representative of the type

in which the components are completely
soluble in the liquid state and completely
insoluble in the solid state is that of bismuth
and cadmium.

Cooling curves for a bismuthcadmium system

Equilibrium diagram of Bismuth and


The phase regions of the BismuthCadmium system are as follows:

Above the curve ABC- homogeneous liquid
solution- one phase
Area ABD- solid bismuth plus liquid- two
Area CBE- Solid cadmium plus liquid- two
Below DBE- solid bismuth plus solid
cadmium- two phases

Components Completely Soluble in the

Liquid State and Partially Soluble in the
Solid State
One of the most common, and therefore,
the most important types of system is that
in which there is partial solubility in the
solid state.
Alloy systems which form equilibrium
diagram of this type Bismuth-Cadmium,
Silver-Copper, and Copper-Molybdenum.

Equilibrium diagram of Silver and


Cooling curves for A-B Systems.

Equilibrium diagram of A and B

Above the curves DKG- homogeneous liquid

solutions- one phase
Area DEKD- alpha solid solution plus liquid- two
Area GKFG- beta solid solution plus liquid- two
Below curve DE- Alpha solid solution- one phase
Below curve GF- beta solid solution- one phase
Below the horizontal line EKF- alpha solid
solution plus beta solid solution- two phases

Equilibrium diagram of copper and



alloy systems which

form equilibrium diagrams
of this type include CopperTin, Copper-Zinc, CopperBeryllium, AluminumCopper, and MagnesiumAluminum.

Peritectic Reactions

peritectic reaction is a reaction

between a liquid and solid phase on
cooling which results in the formation
of a single homogenous phase.
It always occurs at constant


A Eutectoid transformation is transforming a

solid solution to an intimate mixture of two
phases forms having a definite temperature
of transformation.

Transformations Diagram
It is often convenient to represent the
transformations that occur during the
cooling of an alloy by means of a phase
transformation diagram.
Diagrams of this kind are especially helpful
in studying alloys in which complex changes
occur, particularly within the solid state.

Properties of Alloys
The properties of an alloy depend upon
two factors:


The properties of the phase or phases of

which it is composed.
The manner in which the several phases
are associated to form the aggregate