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Layer one of the OSI model is the physical layer. The physical layer is concerned with
the interface to the transmission medium. At the physical layer, data is transmitted onto
the medium (e.g. coaxial cable or optical fiber) as a stream of bits.
So, the physical layer is concerned, not with networking protocols, but with the
transmission media on the network.
The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional
specifications for activating, maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between
end systems. This layer puts 1's & 0's onto the wire.
Characteristics specified by the physical layer include
ଂ voltage levels
ଂ timing of voltage changes
ଂ physical data rates
ଂ maximum transmission distances
ଂ physical connectors
þ  
ଂ Hubs, FDDI Hardware, Fast Ethernet, Token Ring Hardware.
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