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Digital Inequality In The

Land of Equality

Photo Source: awaken.com/2011/12/bridging-the-digital-divide-with-online-education/

What is a Digital Divide?


Essentially, the difference
between those who have access
and the skills to effectively use
technology.
(Howard, 2010)

Image Source: Google.com

What is Digital Inequality?

This is the
evolution of the
digital divide.
Differences in use
and comfort in
technology, not
just access.
There are
inequities across
groups and
regions.

Source: Norris, P. (2001) Digital divid: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet world-wide. New York, NY: Cmabridge University Press.

Digital Inequalities Lead to


Social Inequality
DiMaggio and Bonikowski
(2008) found that non-users
sometimes get lower wages
than regular users of
technology.
Lack of connection also
removes individuals from the
online global economy.
(Howard, et al, 2010)

Source: DiMaggio, P. & Bonikowski, P. (2008). Make Money Surfing the Web? The Impact of Internet Use on the Earnings of U.S. Workers. American
Sociological Review, 73. 227250.

Affordable Broadband Access


"Broadband is the great
infrastructure challenge of the
early 21st Century"
(Obama, 2010)

Affordability
Reform
Innovation
Investment

Broadband: Foundation
"Like electricity a century
ago, broadband is a
foundation for economic
growth, job creation, global
competitiveness and a
better way of life...." (ITU,
2012)

Graph Source: google.com/search?


q=digital+divide+and+graphs&hl=en&tbo=u&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=iXedUPTaK4WWiALll4HICQ&ved=0CCsQsAQ&biw=1334&bih=533

Factors of Digital Inequality

Source: Norris, P. (2001) Digital divid: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet world-wide. New York, NY: Cmabridge University Press.

Factors For Better Tech: Use


Studies of how people use
technology all say the
better education a user
and their parents received,
the more comfort they
show in technology use.

Inequality: Access and Use

Bridging the Divide


Our task is to evaluate
proposals on how to
spend $50 Million on
bridging the gap in access
and use of technology in a
state.

Key Ideas For Consideration


Each of the following proposals were assessed in terms
of the Key Ideas of the National Education Technology
Plan (NETP)

learning
assessment
teaching
infrastructure
productivity

Where Are There Fewer Hours?


Open The Library Longer
Extended Library hours from
3:00 p.m. until 7:00p.m.
Provide six staff members for
supervision.
$109, 440 - Total annual cost
per library.

If You Build Them, They Will Come


Twenty computers in each library.
Suggested PC Model: Dell Optiplex
9010 All In One With Windows 8
($1, 757.57).
Total PC Cost Per Library:
$35,151.40.
Suggested Printer Model: Dell
3330dn Laser printer with 2-year
Warranty ($639.99).
Three Printers Per Library:
$1919.97

The Red Carpet Treatment

Use same staffing


schematic of six districtemployees per library
Open library for 12 hours
per day.
Total cost for one summer:
$437,760
Determine means to provide
Internet to students

If You Provide It, They Will Learn


Provide students with
iPads instead of
computers.
IPad $399 with $99
warranty = $498
compared to Basic Dell
Inspirion at $599.
Laptops are less stable,
are expensive to repair
and break down easily

Option 4: Statewide Broadband Access

Choices!

High-Speed Access for Everyone

Urban/Suburban areas: Satellite, WiMAX, DSL, Cable

Moderate to high income rural areas: Satellite

Low income areas: Spread spectrum WiFi

Option 5: Subsidizing internet

Digital
Literacy

Online
classes

Already
subsidize
d

Libraries
unavaila
ble

Ways to Subsidize ISPs


1. Subsidize companies that provide internet service to
areas with high cost per telephone line
2. Subsidize basic internet service for those of low income
3. Provide wireless internet access through spread
spectrum technology
4. Subsidize data plans for phones

The Need for Digital Literacy

Solutions
Library classes
Boys and girls clubs
Programs in low education counties
After-school programs

Alternatives: Subsidize
Low-cost Laptaops

Image Source: http://blog.nexenta.com/blog/bid/221709/FCC-Chairman-and-Connect2Compete-appear-at-Nexenta-Event

Option 7: Develop Free Content


Develop free online educational
content, giving first priority to content
most relevant to lower socio-economic
groups before content that is relevant
to the rest of the public.

Image Soure: /blog.monitor.us/2012/07/content-management-systems/

Giving Knowledge for Free


The Emergence of Open Educational Resources
(publication by the Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development, & the Center of Educational Research and
Innovation.
According to the 2007 OECD & CERI report, creation and
disbursement of content is a critical component of overall
development.

http://www.oecd.org/

Giving Knowledge for Free


The Emergence of Open Educational Resources
(publication by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, & the
Center of Educational Research and Innovation

" There is also a need to increase access to and the


usefulness of existing resources. Various ways of improving
access and usefulness have been introduced. One seeks to
make it easier for users to find relevant resources of good
quality, particularly those that travel well, by using different
quality management processes and metadata to facilitate the
search for resources. A second is to find ways to increase
access for groups that so far have limited or no access to
these resources..."

Source: http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/38654317.pdf

Option 7: Pros

content design can be targeted at being useful to


those most in need of access
content can be created with the specific local and
regional interests in mind
various community needs could be addressed

Option 7: Cons

developing content is a complex and subjective


enterprise
value for the dollar spent is hard to assess
presents opportunity for divisiveness
there are already a wealth of online and offline
resources available to the public
many existing educational programs are
underfunded

Final Recommendations
Purchase computers for public libraries
across the state
Open public schools for longer hours, with
staff and resources for public technology use
Provide computers to the Disadvantaged
Provide High-Speed Internet for all
Subsidize ISP Costs for state residents
Provide Information Literacy courses
Provide free online educational content,
with focus on lower socio-economic users

Alternative: Subsidize smartphones for use


as mobile hot-spots

References

ITU Measuring the Information Society. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.itu.int/ITUD/ict/publications/idi/index.html (slide 4)

Howard, P. N., Busch, L., & Sheets, P. (2010). Comparing digital divides: Internet access and social inequality in Canada
and the United States. Canadian Journal of Communication, 35(1). Retrieved from http://cjconline.ca/index.php/journal/article/viewArticle/2192Hargittai, E. (2010). Digital Na(t)ives? Variation in Internet Skills and
Uses among Members of the Net Generation. Sociological Inquiry, 80(1), 92113. doi:10.1111/j.1475-682X.2009.00317.x

Measuring the Information Society. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2012, from http://www.itu.int/ITUD/ict/publications/idi/index.html (slide 5)

PBS Teachers . learning.now | PBS. (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from
http://www.pbs.org/teachers/learning.now/ (slide 3)

U.S. Department of Commerce. 2011. Digital Nation. Washington, DC: National Telecommunications and Information
Administration. Retrieved November 10, 2012, from
http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/ntia_internet_use_report_february_2011.pdf (slide 30)

U.S. Department of Education Releases Finalized National Education Technology Plan | U.S. Department of Education.
(n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2012, from https://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/us-department-education-releasesfinalized-national-education-technology-plan.