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Major Advisor

Dr.R.B.Ghorade
Senior Research Scientist,
Sorghum Research Unit,
Dr.PDKV, Akola

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What is Quality?

 Quality refers to the suitability or fitness of an economic plant product in


relation to its end use.

 Definition of quality varies according to our needs from the viewpoint of


seeds, crop growth, crop product, post-harvest technology, consumer
preferences, cooking quality, keeping quality, transportability etc.
(Gupta,2001).

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QUALITY TRAITS

A trait that defines some aspect of produce quality is


called quality trait.

Each crop has a specific & often somewhat to completely


different set of quality traits.

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Classification of Quality
traits
► Morphological
► Organoleptic
► Nutritional
► Biological
► others

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Morphological Traits

related to produce appearance

mainly concerned with size & colour of the produce,

eg.,grain/fruit size, grain/fruit colour etc.

Easily observable.

Usually play the main role in determining consumer


acceptance of the produce.

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Organolaptic traits

Concerned with palatability of the produce .

eg., taste,aroma, smale, juiciness, softness,etc.

Easily detected

Very important in influencing consumer preferences

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Nutritional Quality

Determine the value of the produce in human/ animal


nutrition.

Includes protein content & quality, oil content & quality,


vitamin content, mineral content, etc., and also the
presence of antinutritional factors.

Not easily appreciated by consumers & farmers,

 but they are of paramount value in detremining human


& animal health.
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Biological quality traits
The traits included in this group define the actual
usefulness of the produce when consumed by
experimental animals;

There usefulness to humans is usually predicted on this


basis.

eg.,Protein efficiency ratio,biological value, body weight


gain,etc.

These traits are not obvious to consumers & growers

 but are extremely valuabe in detrmining the utility of


produce for human &/or animal consumption
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Other quality traits

Includes all other quality traits that are not


included in the above categories.

eg., cooking quality of rice, keeping quality of fruits &

vegetables, fibre strengh of cotton etc.

Many of the traits in this group are of prime importance


in determining the usfulness of the concerned produce.

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QUALITYTRAITSOF

SELECTEDCROPS

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Wheat
white or amber grain colour, medium to bold size, hard vitreous texture,
& lustrous appearance are important features for good market quality.

High lysine content & good baking quality are essential for use in biscuit
& bread manufacturing.

Rice
White coloured fine & long slender grains, taste & fragrance, less
breakage in milling, more hulling recovery, better cooking quality, high
protein & lysine contents.

Maize
bold flint grains with attractive colour, high lysine, oil & sugar contents
The seed colour should be yellow or white.

Sorghum
 Bold, thin pericarp, white grains of attractive shape & size, high
protein & lysine content

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Pearl millet
Bold lustrous & pearly amber colour grains with high iron contents

Barley
In malting barley, low protein content & high extract of soluble
oligosaccharides after malting are desirable characters.

Low protein produces less haze in beer & high oligosaccharides are suitable
for fermentation.

Pulses
Attractive shape, size & colour of grains, high protein contents; high methionine
& tryptophan; & less flatulence.

Oil seeds
Attractive shape, size & colour of seeds, high oil content free from antinutritional
factors & more proportion of unsaturated fatty acids.
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Sugarcane

Moderate hardness, long internode, optimum (low) fibre for milling; sucrose
ratio, high sucrose content & good quality of juice.
Cotton

Fibre length, strength, fineness, maturity, uniformity & colour

Tobacco

Short & thin leaves with less branched veins are preferred for cigar.

Thin leaves are also preferred for pipe smoking.

Thick leaves are suitable for cigarettes.

High nicotin content for bidi, hookah & chewing & low for cigarettes are preferred.

High sugar content is also preferred.

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Jute, kenef & sunnhemp

length, strength, fineness, colour, luster & freedom from knots & specks.

Potato

Attractive shape, size & colour of tubers, taste, cooking quality, thin skin, keeping
quality & high starch content.

Vegetables

High vitamin & mineral contents, good taste, keeping quality & cooking quality .

Forage crops
Greater nutritive value, more palatability & freedom from toxic substances.

Medicinal plants

High content of active substance.

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Four major goals for breeding for improved
nutritional quality.
These are breeding for

(1) high content & quality of protein,

(2) high content & quality of oil,

(3) high vitamin contents, &

(4) low toxic substances which are harmful for human health.

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NUTRITION & NUTRIENTS
The scientific study of food in relation to health is referred to as nutrition.

Various chemical components of food which provide nourishment to the body are
called nutrients.

These are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals & water.

Good nutrition refers to adequate intake of well balanced diet, which supplies all
essential nutrients required by the body.

Malnutrition may result from deficiency, excess or imbalance of nutrients.

Hence all the nutrients should be taken in adequate quality.

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Protein content & Quality
Proteins are an essential component of the diet.

Protein are organic macromolecules consisting of a long chain of amino acids


linked with each other by peptide bonds formed by carboxyl(-COOH) group of
one amino acid with amino group(-NH2) of other amino acid

The nutritional properties of proteins are determined by their amino acid


composition

There are 21 amino acids which are important in human nutrition.

These can be classified into two groups, viz. (1) essential amino acids & (2)
non essential amino acids.

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EAA can’t be synthesized in human body & their requirement has to be met
through dietary intake.

There are ten EAA (methionine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine,


threonine,tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, histidine, & arginine).

Out of these arginine & histidine are considered non essential for the adult.

The non EAA can be synthesized in human body & they need not be supplied
through diet.

These are cystine, cysteine, proline, glycine, serine, alanine, aspartic acid,
hydoxyproline, glutamic acid, norleucine & tyrosine.

The quality of protein is determined by the content of essential amino acids.

The sulphure containing amino acids (Tryptophan, Threonine, Isolecine,


Lysine, Valine & Methionine) are referred to as limiting amino acids.

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Table 1: EAA deficient in some vegetarian foods:

Food Limiting amino acids


Cereals lysine, threonine, sometimes
tryptophan

Pulses Methionine, tryptophan

Nuts & oilseeds Lysine

Green leafy vegetable

Leaves & grasses Methionine

Singh,2002

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Vitamins
A vital substance which is required in very small quantity & is essential for
proper growth & good health is called vitamin.

Vitamins are essential for body growth, maintenance & reproduction.

Based on their solubility, vitamins are of two types. Viz. (1) fat soluble (A, D,
E & K) & (2) water soluble: (B group vitamins & vitamin C).

Vitamin D & folic acid can be partly synthesized in the body.

Rest of the vitamins has to be supplied through diet.

Vitamin D is found in fats

other vitamins are found in fleshy fruits & green vegetables.

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NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF CEREALS & PULSES

Cereals are important sources of carbohydrates.

The contribution of cereals is 70% to the total calories in human diet.

They contribute 50% to the global protein requirement,

while grain legumes contribute only 20 %.

Remaining 30% comes from animal products.

The average protein content in the cereals ranges from 10 to 13%.

However, the cereal protein is deficient in lysine, tryptophan & threonine.

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Cereal Protein Quality
Cereal proteins are classified in to four groups based on their solubility:

1)albumins
2)globulins
3)prolamines &
4)glutelins

Major protein fraction of cereal proteins

Protein fraction Soluble in Amino acid profile Remarks


Albumins Water Balanced -
Globulins Saline Balanced -
Prolamines Strong Alcohol Deficient in Lys,Tsp; rich in Major fraction in wheat,
Pro, Gln barley, maize &
sorghum
Glutelins Dilute alkali Balanced -

Singh,2002

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In all cereals, Prolamines are relatively rich in proline & glutamine but low in
basic amino acids including lysine. Therefore, they have poor nutritional
value.

Generally, prolamin content in cereals is negatively associated with total


protein content.

Cereals contain about 70% prolamine & glutelin and 30% albumin &
globulin.

Several mutants with improved protein quality have been identified in


cereals like maize, jowar & barley (Table 2).

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Table 2:The list of mutants affecting protein quality in cereals.
Crop Mutant Origin Features Remarks
Maize Opaque-2 Spontaneous High Lys,Trp Reduced prolamine
Opaque-7 High Lys,Trp Reduced prolamine
Floury-2 High Lys & S-amino acids Reduced prolamine

High Lys,Trp Modified starch, reduced prolamine


Brittle-2

Barley Hiproly(lys) Spontaneous High protein, Lys Also Several minor genes

Notch-1 EMS High protein, Lys Reduced prolamine


Notch-2
Riso 1508 EI High lysine Reduced prolamine; qualitative change in
proteins
Sorghum IS 11167 (hl) Spontaneous High Lysine Shrivelled endosperm, reduced prolamine

IS 11758(hl)

P-721 opaque DES High Lysine Reduced prolamine; monogenic; modifying


genes make the endosperm vitreous

P-721 vitreous Reduced prolamine

Source: Pirman et al.,1997

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Legume Protein Improvement
Legumes contain protein from 18 to 28% which is almost double of cereals
(exception,soybean:43%).

In pulses, two types of proteins, viz. albumin & globulin are found.

The major storage protein in grain legumes is globulin which constitutes


about 80% of the total seed protein.

In chickpea, globulin is of three types, viz. alpha, beta & gamma.

The alpha globulin accounts for more than 80% of the total protein.

In faba & pea, globulin is of two types, viz. legumin & vicilin.

Legumin is less soluble in salt solution than vicilin.

Moreover, legumin does not coagulate at high temperature (950C) while


vicilin coagulates.

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Proteins legumes are deficient in methionine & tryptophan.

Moreover, they contain several toxic substances such as protease inhibitors,


haemagglutinins, lathyrogens, glucocides, goitrogens, cyanogens, metal
binding factors & antivitamin factors.

However, many of these toxic compounds are destroyed during cooking.

Some of these toxins have to be eliminated through breeding.

The mixture of cereals & pulses in 3 : 1 ratio provides nutritionally balanced diet.

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Table 3 :Protein fractions present in legume seeds.
Protein fraction Soluble in Amino acid balance Remarks

Albumin Water Balanced Minor fractions(20% or less)

Globulin Saline Deficient in S-containing AA Predominant fraction(~80%)

In chickpea

α-Globuline - Deficient in S-containing AA 80% total globulins

β- and γ- Globulins - Balanced Relatively minor fraction

In pea, faba & French bean

Legumin Less salt About balanced More predominant than in vicilin in


soluble, faba bean
noncoagulate
Vicilin More salt Deficient in S-containing AA Almost the only globulin in french
soluble, bean
coagulates @
950C

Pirman et al.,1997
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GENETICS OF NUTRITIONAL TRAITS

The quality traits may be governed by

(1) Oligogenic Inheritance,

(2) Polygenic Inheritance, &

(3) Maternal Effects

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Oligogenic inheritance
Inheritance is governed by one or few major genes

Each gene has large & easily detectable effect on the expression of nutritional
quality character.

The differences between characters of high & low value is clear cut.

In Sorghum, high lysine content is controlled by single gene with incomplete
dominanace.

In barley, high lysine content is governed by one major gene plus several minor
genes.

In safflower, fatty acid composition is governed by one major gene with three
major alleles.

In tomato, high beta carotene content is conditioned by two major genes plus
modifires.

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Polygenic inheritance

Inheritance is governed by several genes each with small additive effect

In such inheritance, the variation for a character is continuous from one
extreme to another.

Classification of plants into clear cut classes is not possible.

The protein content in cereals & pulses & seed oil content in oilseed crops are
governed by polygenes.

 Characters which are governed by polygenes are sensitive to environmental


changes & generally have low heritability.

 In carrot, high carotenoid content exhibits complex inheritance pattern.

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Maternal Effects:
 Important/present in case of some quality traits.

Usually, such traits are concerned with grain characteristics, eg.,seed


size(quite common),protein content,etc.

For ex., reported for protein content in chickpea, fatty acid composition in
maize, soybean & rapeseed is influenced by genotype of maternal parent.

Maternal effects have same effect on genetic advance under selection


as other environmental factors, i.e., they confuse correspondence
between genotype & phenotype &, thereby, reduce the progress under
selection.

Therefore, selection schemes must make allowances for maternal


effects if & where present.

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Table 4: Genetics of nutritional quality characters in some crop plants
Crop species Quality character Inheritance controlled by

Sorghum High lysine Single partially dominant gene

Barley High lysine One major gene & several minor genes

Oats Protein content Complex, low content is dominant over high

Maize, Sunflower,Seed oil content Additive genes


Safflower
Sesame Seed oil content Additive genes with partial dominance for low oil
content
Rape seed Erucic acid & eicosenoic acid Two genes with multiple alleles
Turnip rape Erucic acid & eicosenoic acid Single genes with multiple alleles

Safflower Fatty acid composition Three major alleles at one locus

Tomato High beta carotein content Two major genes plus modifiers

Carrot Carotenoid content The inheritance is complex

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Gupta,1992
SOURCES OF QUALITY TRAITS:

(1) a cultivated variety,

(2) a germplasm line,

(3) a spontaneous or induced mutant,

(4) a somaclonal variant,

(5) a wild relative and

(6) a transgene

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1) A cultivated Variety

 most preferred source

eg. Atlas 66 & Naphal have been used as sources of high protein content in USA.

2) A Germplasm Line
eg. High lysine (3% of total protein) lines of sorghum, viz., IS 11167 & IS 11758,
were identified from Ethiopian collections.

These lines also have (15%) protein but their seeds are shrivelled & red in colour.

They have been extensively used in breeding programmes.

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3) A mutant

 many quality traits have been contributed by spontaneous/induced mutants


(Table 2).

There are also examples of isolation of desirable mutants from mutant lines for
quality traits.

eg. P-721 opaque mutant of sorghum has opaque endosperm, which is not
liked by consumers.

A vitreous endosperm DES-induced mutant was isolated from P-271 opaque


line; this mutant has high lysine content.

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4) A Somaclonal Variant
 Somaclonal variants may sometimes show an improvement in a quality trait.

eg., a somaclonal variant of sweet potato had deeper & more stable root colour,
which is preferred by consumers; this variant was released as a new variety
called ‘ Scarlet’

5) A wild Relative

 There are several instances where genes for improved quality were contributed
by a wild relative (Table 5)

In many cases, the quality trait is not expressed as such in the wild species, but
it is detected only in the segregants recovered from its cross with the cultivated
relative; such traits are called latent traits.

eg., L.hirsutum, a wild relative of tomato, produces small green fruits.

Yet some of the lines extracted from a cross between tomato & L. hirsutum
showed enhanced red colour, while some others showed considerably higher
carotene content.
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Table 5: Wild relatives from which quality traits have been/can be
transferred.(Chopra ,1989)

Crop Wild relative Quality trait

Cotton G. thurberi Fibre strength(latent trait)

G. armourianum Fibre strength(latent trait)

G. anomalum Fibre fineness, strength & maturity

G.raimondii Fibre strength & fineness

G. tomentosum Fibre strength & fineness

Tomato L. hirsutum Fruit colour, carotene content (latent trait)

L. pimpinellifolium Vitamin C content

L. peruvianum Vitamin C content

Pigeonpea Atylosia spp. High protein content

Soybean Glysine soja High protein (has 45% protein), reduced lipoxygenase
activity

Oats Avena sterillis High protein (27% protein)


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6) A Transgene

 A gene from any organism, including the species into which it is transferred, that
is introduced into the genome of an organism using the techniques of genetic
engineering is called transgene.

 Transgenes provide a powerful means for modification of quality traits.

In order to use transgenes effectively & successfully, biosynthetic pathway, or at


least key enzymes involved in biosynthesis, leading to production of concerned
trait should be known.

eg., ‘Laurical’ ( B. napus variety having high lauric acid) & B. napus variety
producing ‘hirudin’(antithrombin protein of high pharmaceutical value)

Production of hirudin & similar other novel proteins/ biochemicals in plants may be
regarded as a novel quality trait, which drastically changes the end use pattern of

crop produce.
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BREEDING APPROACHES:

►1)Evolution of germplasm.

►2)Mutagenesis.

►3)Hybridization.

►4)Interspecific hybridization.

►5)Somaclonal variation.

►6)Genetic engineering

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1) Screening of Germplasm

 important for such traits that are not obvious,


viz.,traits related to chemical composition.
 eg.,The lysine germplasm lines of sorghum

Further breeding effort will be required to combine the quality trait with good
agronomic features &/or yield since the germplasm line is expected to be inferior in
yield & agronomic characteristics.

2) mutagenesis

 A desired quality trait may be present in spontaneous/induced mutant (Table 2).

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Varieties release for quality through mutation breeding
Crop Origin Mutant Features
Rice
IIT-48 India Thylene cocideo3% Fine grain bitter test weight compared with IR 8

P-721 vitreous DES High lysine


X-rays, 30 kr direct selection in Medium slender grain good cooking quality
M2 (T.141)
Jagannath USSR Mutant 428 Cooking quality
zolotistyi Cooking quality
HU 2005 Good Cooking quality
Daisenminori Torikei 4 x Good Cooking quality
satominori
Miyukimochi- gamma rays Glutinous endosperm

Wheat

Sharbati sonora India Dry seeds (12%) 60 CO gamma Amber grain colour, higher protein and lysine content
rays (Sonora 64)
Pusa Lerma Seeds gamma irradiation Amber grain colour , elasticity and polshenke value
(Lerma Rojo 64)
Stadler USA Thermal neutrons (Mo W Strong straw, excellent soft quality and winter hardiness
6243)
Novosibirskaira 67 USSR Air dry seeds 5Kr 60 CO Baking quality
gamma rays (Novosibirskaira
7)

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Contd……….

Crop Origin Mutant Features


Barley

Spontaneous Hiproly (lys) High protein, lys


EMS Notch -1 High protein, lys
Notch -2 High protein, lys
EI Riso 1508 High lysine
Canor – Trunpf x Nordal 1976 Good malting quality
Vienna Austria Dry seeds. 9400 rad x-rays High 1000 kernel weight
Pennrad USA Thermal neutrons Increased winter hardiness
Jutta Germany 5 KR X-rays Increased winter hardiness
Pallas Sweden Presoaked seeds, Y 350 rad x- Stiff strane
rays
Mari Sweden Dry seeds, 20 Krad x-rays Stiff straw

Kristina Sweden Selection from Domen X Mari Good straw

Bonneville 70 USA Seeds, 15 Krad gamma-rays Improved threshability

Source:Vijaykumar ,2002
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Contd……

Crop Origin Mutant Features


Pigean pea
Vishakha-1 BARC Fast neutrons(T-21) 35% increased in seed size
Co-3 Coimbatore 0.6% EMS (CO-1) Bold seeded, higher degree of
shelling
TAT-5 PKV Akola & BARC 1.5 Krad fast neutrons (T-21) Approximately 50 % larger
seed size
TAT-10 PKV Akola & BARC Cross of mutant TT-2 (large seeded compact) x TT- Medium large grains
8 (early) both induced by 2.5 Krad fast neutrons (T-
21)

Blackgram
TAU-1 PKV, Akola Cross: T-9 x 4-196 (mutant induced by gamma- Larger seed size
rays) (No.55)
Chickpea NIFA-95 High protein

Cowpea TNAU CO5-Gamma rays Nutritional value

Linseed
Linola 989 India Mutant Oil quality
Sunflower
Prevenets India Chemical Oil content

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Contd……

Crop Origin Mutant Features


Groundnut
Somnath Gujrat Mutant Seed size & oil content
Vikram BARC γ-rays Seed size
BP-1 BARC γ-rays Seed size
BP-2 BARC γ-rays Seed size
Sesame
Sinai White Egypt γ-rays Seed colour
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Suvon 155 Korea γ-rays Oil quality
Yangbaek Korea SA Higher oil content
Seodum Korea SA Somewhat higher oleic acid

Source:Vijaykumar ,2002

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3) Hybridization
 Most widely used breeding approach to develop high yielding varieties with
desirable quality traits.

The breeding methods used to handle segregating generations derived from


appropriate crosses depend mainly on the type of parents involved in the cross.

If both parents of a cross are high yielding varieties having good agronomic
features, pedigree method will be the most suitable .

If one of the parents has inferior agronomic features, backcross scheme will be the
most appropriate; only a limited number (2-3) of backcross may be made, if the
inferior parent has some desirable features as well (in addition to the quality trait).

The segregating generation may be subjected to sib-mating, in place of selfing, &


selection in an effort to break undesirable linkages with the gene controlling quality

traits.
These considerations apply when quality trait is governed by oligogenes (Table 6 ).
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Quality traits governed by polygenes may be improved by subjecting the
segregating generations to a form of recurrent selection
Recurrent selection for two cycles increased seed protein content of rajna
(french bean) from 21.9% to 24.6%.

In case of soybean, there was an increase of 3.3% (from 42.8 to 46.1 per cent)
in seed protein content in response to 5 cycles of recurrent selection.

Table 6 :Selected examples of breeding for improved protein/lysine content


Crop Breeding method Improvement Remarks

French bean(rajma) Recurrent selection Protein content 2.7% increase in two cycles

Soybean Recurrent selection Protein content 3.3% increase in five cycles

Sorghum Pedigree method Lysine content -

Barley Backcross method Lysine content -

Sorghum Mutagenesis High lysine Diethyl sulphonate

Barley Mutagenesis High lysine EMS & ethylene imine

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Singh, 2002
4) Interspecific Hybridization
 When individual from two distinct species of the same genus are crossed.

 Wild relative often contribute useful quality genes, eg.,fruit colour, fruit size, pro-
vitamin A & vitamin C content in tomato etc.(Table 5)

In any case, the high quality lines derived from such crosses will usually serve as
parents in hybridization programmes; it is unlikely that they will be used directly
as varieties.

5) Somaclonal Variation
Genetic variation present in tissue culture-raised plants (somaclonal variation)
has been exploited for crop improvement & several somaclonal variants are
being used as commercial varieties.

 eg., ‘Scarlet’ variety of sweet potato has improved & more stable root colour.

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BREEDING METHODS

Breeding methods used for improvement of quality do not differ from breeding
methods used for any other character.

Breeding methods that are extensively used for improvement of quality traits
include backcross, pedigree method, single seed descent, recurrent
selection, progeny selection & mutation breeding.

In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pedigree, single seed descent &
recurrent selection methods have been used for improvement of protein
content.

Two cycles of recurrent selection increased seed protein from 21.9% to 24.6%.

In soybean, five cycles of recurrent selection increased seed protein from 42.8
to 46.1 per cent.

In Sorghum, pedigree breeding procedure was used for developing high lysine
lines.

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In barley, backcross method was used for development of high lysine lines. In
barley, high lysine line had small seed size & low grain yield.

In sunflower, seed oil content was increased from 30% to almost 50% by
Russian breeders in 50 years using modified recurrent selection.

In safflower, oil content was increased from 37% to 50% through reduction in
hull content.

In maize, seed oil content increased from 4.7 to 17% & protein from 10.9 to
23.5 after 70 cycles of recurrent selection in USA. But there was a drastic
reduction in grain yield.

Mutation breeding has been used for development of high lysine lines in
Sorghum, barley & maize.

Diethylsulphonate (DES) has been used in Sorghum & EMS & EI in barley for
induction of high lysine mutants.

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SCREENING TECHNIQUES

Breeding for enhanced nutritional quality involves lot of chemical analysis.

The breeding material has to be screened for protein content, amino acid
composition, seed oil content, fatty acid composition, vitamin contents &
antinutritional factors.

This requires close cooperation of biochemist.

The selection of plants with better nutritional quality is done based on chemical
analysis should be simple, cheap & rapid.

Now rapid chemical analysis methods are available for protein estimation, seed
oil estimation, fatty acids & amino acid analysis.

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Seed Oil Analysis

The seed oil analysis is done with the help of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
(NMR) or Nuclear Infrared Analyser (NIR).

 This is the non destructive method of oil analysis. After oil analysis the seeds
can be used for sowing purpose.

Several single plants in segregating populations can be analyzed.

This method is quite simple, highly accurate & very fast. By this method, 300-
400 samples can be easily analyzed per day.

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Protein Analysis

Now analysis of grain protein is done with the help of protein analyser.

The analysis is based on the principle of infra-red reflectance measurement.

The seed is grouped into flour which is used for the analysis.

This method is very fast. By this method 200-300 samples can be easily
analysed per day.

Individual amino acids can be estimated by colorimetric method or


microbiological method.

Analysis of antinutritional factors is carried out by chemical method.

The old methods of protein estimation (Kjeldahl method) & oil analysis (Soxhlet
method) were very much time consuming though more accurate.

 Now fast methods have been developed.

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BREEDING FOR LOW TOXIC SUBSTANCES

In some grain legumes, oilseeds. Vegetables, fruits & forage crops toxic
substances are found.

These toxic substances have adverse effects on human & animal health.

Feeding of forage with toxic substance will adversely effect the health of
animal.

Therefore, it is essential to develop varieties of forage & food crops with low
level of toxic substance so that it should not have adverse effect when
consumed by animals.

Considerable progress has been made in the development of varieties with


low toxin content in above crops.

 Breeding for reduction in toxic substances requires lot of chemical analysis.

Hence development of simple, cheap, rapid & reliable methods of chemical


analysis is essential.
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Antinutritional factors in legumes
Antinutritional factor Action in human body Source Methods to overcome

Type A

1. Protease inhibitors Interferes in human digestive Chickpea, pigeonpea , limabean , By heat treatments,
process and nutrients utilization kidney bean, peanuts, cowpea, germination,
garden pea fermentation
2. Lectins or Agglutinates red blood cells and Lentil, peas, soybean, kidney beans, Traditional cooking,
hemaggluttins other types of cells, toxic to human peanuts germination
when exceeds the limits
3. Saponins Bitter taste, hemolyze red blood Alfalfa , soybean, french bean, pisum --
cells
Type B

1. Phytic acid Makes mineral insoluble by binding Soybean , fababean, lentil, chickpea Germination, applying
strongly with them particularly with and phaseolus beans phytase enzyme
Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and other trace
elements

2. Gossypols Binds with Fe and amino acids Cotton seed meal CaOH addition reduces
gossypol
3.Glucosinolates Causes legume goitre in childrens, Brasica, soybean, peanuts
due to iodine deficiency

54
Contd……..
Antinutritional factor Action in human body Source Methods to overcome

Type C

1. Antivitamins Decomposes vitamins and Green beans, green --


many combine with them to peas, kidney beans,
form unabsorable common beans ,
complexes soybean, pea sprouts

2.lathrogens Neuro -paralysis of lower Lathyrus sp. Cooking in excess water and draining off the
limbs excess water overnight cooking cold water.
Steeping the dehusked seeds is hot water.
Roasting seeds at 150 o C for 20 minutes.

3. Favic agents Favism , hemolytic anamia Faba beans Drying the bean, cooking
and hemoglobinurea

4. Estrogenic factors Induces the growth of soybean germination


feminine parts

5. Toxic amino acids Kidney mal function Djenkol bean --

6. Antienzymes Inhibits amylose Navy bean and its --


relatives
7. Flatulence factors Resists digestion soybean

8.cynogens Human poisoning, mental Lima bean Cooking and discarding cooking cooking water
confusion, muscle paresis
and respiratory distress

55
Source:Manickam,2002
TABLE 7 . Toxic substances found in different food & fodder crops
Crops species Toxic substance Crops species Toxic substance

Food crops Fodder Crop


Khesari Lathyrogen or nurotoxin
Sorghum Tannins & cyanogenic
Pigeon pea Tripsin inhibitors
Cowpea Glucocides
French bean Haemagglutinine Sudan grass Cynogenic glucocides
Tripsin & amylase inhibitors
Soybean Tripsine inhibitor & goitrogens White clover Cynogenic glucocides

Rapeseed & Erucic acid


Alfalfa Saponins & plant
Mustard Eicosenoic acid estrogenes
Cotton seed Gossypol Sweet clover Coumarin
Safflower Polyphenolics
Potato Steroidal alkaloids Lespedeza Tannins

Cucurbits Cucurbitacines
Brinjal Bitter principle
Cassava CN glucocides
Yarn Alkaloids
Mango Resigns
Field pea Anti vitamin E factor

56

Singh,2002
PRACTICAL ACHIEVEMENTS

Varieties with improved nutritional quality have been developed in several food
crops in many countries.

In common bean, seed protein has been increased from 21.9 to 24.6, & in
soybean seed from 42.8 to 46.1%.

In sunflower, seed oil content has been increased from 32% to almost 50% in
USSR, & in safflower from 37 to 50%.

In maize, seed oil content has been increased from 4.7 to 17% & protein
content from 10.9 to 23.5%.

In wheat, Atlas-66 is an important source of high protein which is being used in
breeding programmes for improvement of protein content.

57
Varieties with improved quality released in some crop plants in India

Crop species Quality character Varieties released

Maize High lysine content Protina, Shakti & Rattan

Sugarcane High sucrose content Co 671, Co 6806, Co 7314,Co 7704 & Co 62174

Barley Malting quality Karan 15, Karan 92 & Karan 280

Lathyrus Low neurotoxin Pusa 24


Soybean High protein & Lee (Protein 43-45% & oil 23-25%)
high oil content
Rapeseed High oil content K 88 (48.8% oil)

Singh,2002

58
Limitations
Most are polygenic

Difficult to estimate & evaluate, hence more finance required

Low heritability & affected by environment

There is negative association of seed protein with grain yield in both


cereals & pulses.

In some cases, improvement in quality leads to reduction in grain


size and yield.
For example, in barley selection for high lysine content causes
reduction in grain size and grain yield.

Sometimes, the quality character is found in wild relatives or species

The analysis requires close cooperation of biochemist which


sometimes becomes limiting factor in the progress.

Biotechnological tools have not been used widely in all crops.

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