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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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30 mol% toluene is subjected to batch differential

distillation at atmospheric pressure. Determine the

compositions of the distillate and residue after

one-third of the original mass is distilled off.

Assume the mixture forms an ideal solution and

apply Raoult’s and Dalton’s laws with vapor-

pressure data.

SOLUTION

V=1/3L1

condenser

L1 = 250lb

1 ATM

x1 = 0.7 D

L, x

Assume mixture is ideal

still pot solution

Apply Raoult’s and Dalton’s

XD , X = ? law with VP data

• Given the vapor pressure data

P

RAOULT’S LAW: C6H6 = x P

C6H6 C6H6

( )

PC 6H6 x C6H6 + PC 7H8 1− x C6H6 = P

P −PC7H8

=

therefore: x C 6H6

PC 6H6 −PC 7H8

y C6H6 = =

P P

• Vapor-pressure data

P C6H6 ,kPa C7H8 , kPa

P x y

123.3 48.7 0.7054 0.8584

125.0 49.4 0.6868 0.8473

126.8 50.2

0.6674 0.8352

128.7 51.0

0.6477 0.8227

130.6 51.9 0.8095

0.6280

P −PC7H8 PC 6H6 x C6H6

x C6H6 = and y C H =

PC 6H6 −PC 7H8 6 6

P

• Graphical representation

6.8

6.4

AREA 1

6

1/(y-x)

AREA 2

n1

5.6 AREA 3 n2

AREA 4

5.2 n3

n4

4.8

0.628 0.6674 0.7054

x

Using Rayleigh Equation

x =?

⌠ dx L 32 L 0

= ln = ln = −0.4055

⌡x 0 =0.7 y − x L0 L0

Using the data obtained from Table 1 we could

solve for 1/(y-x)

1 1

= = 6.5363

( y - x ) ( 0.8584 ) − ( 0.7054 )

Using the graph we could solve for the total

area using Trapezoidal Rule:

f ( x0 ) f ( xn )

∑ ( k) +

n −1

Tn = h{ + f x }

2 k =1

2

• by graphical integration

x y 1/(y-x) Total Area

0.7054 0.8584 6.5363

0.6868 0.8473

6.2312 -0.1187

0.6674 0.8352 5.9593 -0.2370

0.6477 0.8227

5.7148 -0.3522

0.6280 0.8095 -0.4626

5.5112

• Interpolating the values at the total area

x =?

⌠ dx

= = −0.4055, x = 0.6382

⌡x 0 =0.7 y − x

L 0 x 0 − Lx L 0 x 0 − 32 L 0 x

x D,av = =

L0 − L L 0 − 32 L 0

L 0 ( 0.7 ) − 32 L 0 ( 0.6382 )

therefore: x D,av = = 0.8236

L0 − 3 L0

2

xD = 0.8236

x = 0.6382

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