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# SAMPLE PROBLEM #8:

## A charge of 250 lb of 70 mol% benzene and

30 mol% toluene is subjected to batch differential
distillation at atmospheric pressure. Determine the
compositions of the distillate and residue after
one-third of the original mass is distilled off.
Assume the mixture forms an ideal solution and
apply Raoult’s and Dalton’s laws with vapor-
pressure data.
SOLUTION
V=1/3L1

condenser

L1 = 250lb
1 ATM
x1 = 0.7 D

L, x
Assume mixture is ideal
still pot solution
Apply Raoult’s and Dalton’s
XD , X = ? law with VP data
• Given the vapor pressure data
P
RAOULT’S LAW: C6H6 = x P 
C6H6 C6H6

## - Combining Dalton and Raoult’s Law we get:

( )
PC 6H6 x C6H6 + PC 7H8 1− x C6H6 = P
P −PC7H8
= 
therefore: x C 6H6
PC 6H6 −PC 7H8

## PC6H6 PC 6H6 x C 6H6

y C6H6 = =
P P
• Vapor-pressure data
 
P C6H6 ,kPa C7H8 , kPa
P x y
123.3 48.7 0.7054 0.8584
125.0 49.4 0.6868 0.8473
126.8 50.2
0.6674 0.8352
128.7 51.0
0.6477 0.8227
130.6 51.9 0.8095
0.6280

## Using the equation below, we could solve for x & y simultaneously

P −PC7H8 PC 6H6 x C6H6
x C6H6 =  and y C H =
PC 6H6 −PC 7H8 6 6
P
• Graphical representation

6.8

6.4
AREA 1
6
1/(y-x)

AREA 2
n1
5.6 AREA 3 n2
AREA 4
5.2 n3
n4
4.8
0.628 0.6674 0.7054
x
Using Rayleigh Equation
x =?
⌠ dx L  32 L 0 
 = ln  = ln  = −0.4055
⌡x 0 =0.7 y − x  L0   L0 
Using the data obtained from Table 1 we could
solve for 1/(y-x)
1 1
= = 6.5363
( y - x ) ( 0.8584 ) − ( 0.7054 )
Using the graph we could solve for the total
area using Trapezoidal Rule:
f ( x0 ) f ( xn )
∑ ( k) +
n −1
Tn = h{ + f x }
2 k =1
2
• by graphical integration
x y 1/(y-x) Total Area
0.7054 0.8584 6.5363
0.6868 0.8473
6.2312 -0.1187
0.6674 0.8352 5.9593 -0.2370
0.6477 0.8227
5.7148 -0.3522
0.6280 0.8095 -0.4626
5.5112
• Interpolating the values at the total area
x =?
⌠ dx
=  = −0.4055, x = 0.6382
⌡x 0 =0.7 y − x

## Using Material Balance

L 0 x 0 − Lx L 0 x 0 − 32 L 0 x
x D,av = =
L0 − L L 0 − 32 L 0

L 0 ( 0.7 ) − 32 L 0 ( 0.6382 )
therefore: x D,av = = 0.8236
L0 − 3 L0
2

xD = 0.8236
x = 0.6382