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m 

A mixture containing 30 mole percent benzene and 70


mole percent toluene is to be fractionated at normal
atmospheric pressure in a column with a total condenser
and a still from which the bottoms are withdrawn.

The distillate is to contain 95 mole percent benzene and


the bottoms 4 mole percent benzene. The feed is at its
dew point.
What is the minimum number of equilibrium stages in the
column required at total reflux?

What is the minimum reflux ratio Rm?


wquilibrium Data at Column Pressure,
mole fraction benzene
x y x y

0.10 0.21 0.60 0.79

0.20 0.37 0.70 0.86

0.30 0.51 0.80 0.91

0.40 0.64 0.90 0.96

0.50 0.72 0.95 0.98


mtep 1. Diagram total
condenser

Distillate
Feed Distilling
xD = 0.95
column Nmin = ?
(at dew point)
1 atm
xF = 0.3
Bottoms
xB = 0.04
Partial
reboiler
mtep 2: Total reflux on McCabe-Thiele diagram

At total reflux,
y-intercept of the upper operating line = 0;

Then, the overall operating line coincides with the diagonal


Benzene ± Toluene system
1

0.8

0.6

0.4 Nmin = 6.7

0.2

xF = 0.3 xD = 0.95
xB = 0.04 0.2 0.6 0.8 1
0.4
mtep 3: Minimum reflux on McCabe -Thiele diagram

0.8

pinch
0.6
point

0.4
y-intercept for
Rm = 0.173
0.2

0
xF = 0.3 xD = 0.95
xB = 0.04 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
To solve for the y-intercept of upper operating line,

X
Y-intercept ---------------
§ +

.
----------------
+
.

S E S:
in .
.