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# IS-1 Financial Primer

Stochastic Modeling
Symposium
By
Thomas S.Y. Ho PhD
Thomas Ho Company, Ltd
Tom.ho@thomasho.com
April 3, 2006

Purpose
Overview of the basic principles in the
relative valuation models
Overview of the basic terminologies

Equity derivatives
Fixed income securities

## Practical implementation of the models

Examples of applications

Traditional Valuation
Net present value
Expected cashflows
Cost of capital as opposed to cost of
funding
Capital asset pricing model
Cost of capital of a firm as opposed to cost
of capital of a project (or security)

Relative Valuation
Law of one price: extending to nontradable financial instruments
Applicability to insurance products and
annuities (loans and GICs)
Arbitrage process and relative pricing

## Stock Option Model

Modeling approach: specifying the
assumptions, types of assumptions
Description of an option
Economic assumptions:

## Constant risk free rate

Constant volatility
Stock return distribution
Efficient capital markets

## Binomial Lattice Model

Generality of the model in describing the
equity return distribution
Market lattice and risk neutral lattice
Dynamic hedging and valuation
Intuitive explanation of the model results
Comparing the relative valuation approach
and the traditional approach the case of
a long dated equity put option

## In the absence of arbitrage opportunities, there

exist positive state prices such that the price of
any security is the sum across the states of the
world of its payoff multiplied by the state price.
=(Cu Cd)/(Su -Sd )

## u =(S- exp(-rT) Sd )/(Su - Sd )

C = uCu + dCd

S=

1 = uexp(rT)+ dexp(rT)

uSu + dSd

Option Pricing
Stock Price(\$)

100

100

Stock Volatility

0.2

Risk-free rate

0.05

dividend yields

N/A

## the number of periods

dt = T/n

upward movement

1.0851

= exp(dt)

downward movement

0.9216

= 1/u

risk-neutral probability of u

0.5308

= (exp(rdt)-d)/(u-d)

Stock lattice
163.21
4965

stock lattice
time

150.41
8059

138.62
4497

138.62
4497

127.75
5612

117.738
905

127.75
5612

117.738
905

108.50
756

100

117.738
905

108.50
756

100

92.159
4775

84.933
693

108.50
756

100

92.159
4775

84.933
693

78.274
4477

72.137
3221

100

92.159
4775

84.933
693

78.274
4477

72.137
3221

66.481
3791

61.268
8917

63.214965

10.125573

51.247930

38.624497

40.277352

28.585483

17.738905

30.224621

19.391759

9.337430

0.000000

21.723634

12.494533

4.915050

0.000000

0.000000

15.055460

7.780762

2.587191

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

4.729344

1.361849

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

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measures

1 = pu + pd

1 = qu + qd

## Probability measure: assigning prob

Denominator: numeraire
Martingale: expected value= current value

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Ito process

(dt)2 =0
(dt)(dB)=0
(dB)2 =dt

Z = g( t, X)

## Geometric Brownian motion

dS/S =dt + dB(t)
S(t) = S(0)exp (t - 2t/2 + B(t))

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Numeraires and
Probabilities

## dS/S = s dt + sdBs(t) dividend paying

dV/V = qdt + dS/S dividend re-invested
dY/Y = * dt + *dB*(t) any asset
R(t) = integral of r(s) stochastic rates
Risk neutral measure

Z(t) = V(t)/R(t)
dS/S = (r- q) dt + sdB(t)

V as numeraire

Z(t) = R(t)/V(t)
dS/S = (r q + s2)dt + s dB
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## Numeraire General Case

Y as numeraire

Z(t) = V(t)/Y(t)
dS/S = (r q + s y)dt + s dB

Volatility invariant

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## Risk Neutral Measure

Martingale process
Examples of measures

## Generalization of the Black-Scholes Model

Applications in the capital markets
Applications to the insurance products

Life products
Fixed annuities
Variable annuities
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Sensitivity Measures

Delta , S
Gamma ,
Theta (time decay) t
Vega v measure
Rho , r
Relationships of the sensitivity measures
Intuitive explanation of the greeks

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100

100
?

## Time to expiration (T)

Stock volitility ()

0.2

## Risk-free rate (r)

0.04

Dividend yields ()

0
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Greeks
Call

Put

Price

9.92505

6.00400

(Delta)

0.61791

-0.38209

(Gamma)

0.01907

0.01907

v (Vega)

38.13878

38.13878

(Theta)

-5.88852

-2.04536

(Rho)

51.86609

-44.21286

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## Interest Rate Modeling

Lattice models
Yield curve estimation
Yield curve movements
Dynamic hedging of bonds
Term structure of volatilities
Sensitivity measures

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Setting Up
year

0.060

0.060

0.065

0.070

0.075

0.080

1.00000
0

0.94176
5

0.87809
5

0.81058
4

0.74081
8

0.67032
0

0.060

0.060

0.070

0.080

0.090

0.100

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

0.0775

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0.86124
1
P (n 1)
i
Pi (1) 2

n
P(n) (1 )
n

0.87964
7

0.87469
5

0.89695
1

0.89200
4

0.88835
8

0.91310
5

0.90814
3

0.90453
4

0.90223
5

0.92805
8

0.92306
6

0.91947
4

0.91724
1

0.91632
8

0.94176
5

0.93672
9

0.93313
6

0.93094
6

0.93012
6

0.93064
2

year

21

0.14938
06
ln Pi n (T )
ri (T )
T
n

0.12823
51

0.13388
06

0.10875
38

0.11428
51

0.11838
06

0.09090
47

0.09635
38

0.10033
51

0.10288
06

0.07466
08

0.08005
47

0.08395
38

0.08638
51

0.08738
06

## Interest rate lattice

0.06

0.06536
08

0.06920
47

0.07155
38

0.07243
51

0.07188
06

year

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P( n 1)

P ( n)

Pi n (1)

1 n1 n2 1 1 n1 2

1 n 1 1 n 2 1 n

ni

0.86673
1

0.926800

0.94176

0.88096
3

0.87807
2

0.89598
0

0.89266
8

0.88956
2

0.9
11
39
5

0.90779
5

0.90453
0

0.90120
1

0.9
23
04
4

0.91976
5

0.91654
9

0.91299
4

0.9
34

23
0.93189

0.92872

0.92494

P ( n 1)
1 n 1 n 2 L 1 L 1 n 1 2

P ( n)

1 n L 1 1 n L 2 L 1 n

ni

Pi n (1)

0.1

0.095

0.09

0.085

0.08

## lognormal forward volatility (f)

0.1

0.0907143

0.081875

0.0733333

0.065

Ho-Lee
model rates
with term
structure of
volatilities

0.1430264

0.1267402

0.1300264

0.1098368

0.1135402

0.1170264

0.0927784

0.0967368

0.1003402

0.1040264

0.076018

0.0800784

0.0836368

0.0871402

0.0910264

0.06

0.064018

0.0673784

0.0705368

0.0739402

0.0780264

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Alternative Arbitrage-free
Interest Rate Modeling

## These are not economic models but

Techniques
techniques
Spot rate model
N-factor model
Lattice model
Continuous time model
Calibrations

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Alternative Valuation
Algorithms

## Discounting along the spot curve

Backward substitution
Pathwise valuation

monte-carlo
Antithetic, control variate
Structured sampling

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Models

## Ho-Lee, Black-Derman-Toy, Hull-White

Heath-Jarrow-Morton model
Brace-Gatarek-Musiela/Jamshidian model
(Market Model)
String model
Affine model

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Examples of Applications

## Option adjusted spreads

Mortgage-backed securities

Prepayment models
CMOs

## Capital structure arbitrage valuation

Insurance products

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Conclusions
Comparing relative valuation and the NPV
model
Imagine the world without relative
valuation
Beyond the Primer:

## Importance of financial engineering

Identifying the economics of the models

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References
Ho and Lee (2005) The Oxford Guide to
Financial Modeling Oxford University Press
Excel models (185 models)
www.thomasho.com
Email: tom.ho@thomasho.com

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