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A

PRESENTATION
ON TRAINING
REPORT ON

EMBEDDED
SYSTEMS

NETRATVA TECHNOLOGY PVT. LTD. RAIPUR
BRANCH,
TATYAPARA CHOWK, RAIPUR

-: PREPARED BY :-

SANJAY KUMAR DHRITLAHARE
DILIP KUMAR
VIKAS KUJUR

OUTLINES :Introduction
Need
Microcontroller
Hardware

Design
Programming
Program burning
on Microcontroller
Applications of ES

1. INTRODUCTION
An

Embedded System is a computer system
designed to perform one or a few dedicated
functions often with real-time computing
constraints.
An embedded system is designed to run on its
own without human intervention, and may be
required to respond to events in real time.

IN GENERAL, AN EMBEDDED
SYSTEM:
Is

a system built to perform its duty,
completely or partially independent
of human intervention?
Is specially designed to perform a
few tasks in the most efficient way.
Interacts with physical elements in
our environment, viz. controlling
and driving a motor, sensing
temperature, etc.

EXAMPLES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS MP3 music players Mobile phone units Domestic appliances Data switches Automotive controls .

 Interfacing circuits to connect with the main application. .  Dedicated hardware for functions.  Real time software.  Test and maintenance hardware.A typical embedded system would have:  A micro-controller to provide the “intelligence”.

1. like PCs. size-limitations. NEED :  The first reason why we need embedded systems is because general-purpose computers. reliability or real-time performance etc. .   Another reason why we need embedded systems is because general-purpose solution might also fail to meet a number of functional or performance requirements such as constraints in power-consumption. would be far too costly for the majority of products that incorporate some form of embedded system technology.

recent poll data shows that embedded computer systems currently outnumber humans in the USA. Some of the embedded systems we use every day control the menu system on television. a cell phone.  Embedded systems are playing important roles in our lives every day. has reached a stage that we cannot conduct our normal modern daily lives without this technology. Embedded systems are a rapidly growing industry where growth opportunities are numerous. which contains a processor. even though they might not necessarily be visible. whether it is a phone. Indeed. the timer in a microwave oven. started decades ago. an automatic washing machine or an MP3 player. an MP3 player or any other device with some amount of intelligence built-in. In fact. it is safe to say that we already own at least one piece of equipment. a television. . The digital revolution.

. memory.1.  A microcontroller is a compact microcomputer designed to govern the operation of embedded systems. uC or MCU) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core. MICROCONTROLLER A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated µC. and programmable input/ output peripherals.

There is no (separate) operating system or monitor program – the operating system has to be merged with the application program. memory. and peripherals. . Most embedded micro-controllers have to respond in real time.A typical microcontroller includes a processor. An embedded micro-controller runs a single program which never terminates.

EMBEDDED MICROPROCESSORS .

ATMEL MICROCONTROLLERS .

BASIC INFORMATION OF DIFFERENT MICROCONTROLLERS .

4K bytes of onchip ROM. Data larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. .  The 8051 is an 8-bit processor. meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time.MICROCONTROLLER 8051  8051 is the most commonly used microcontroller  This microcontroller had 128 bytes of RAM. and four ports (each 8-bits wide) all on a single chip. two timers. one serial port.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE 8051 FAMILY .

PIN DIAGRAM OF 8051 .

1. hardware design .

DEVELOPMENT BOARD 7 Segment Display µC Rela y ULN2003 L293 D LM32 4 IR Sensor .

 LEDs  Resistors & Potentiometers  Microcontroller AT89C51  Crystal Oscillator for 11.  IC-7805 for +5V output.COMPONENTS USED :12V/750mA Step down Transformer.  IC-7812 for +12V for Relay and Motor.  1000µF Capacitor for filter.0592MHz frequency generation  BC547 npn Transistors  Male and Female bus connectors  Pull-up Resistors  .  1N4007 p-n junction diodes for rectifier ckt.

Low power design.HARDWARE DESIGN Compatibility of system components CHALLANGES with each other. Time to market. Modularity and ability to upgrade the system in the field. . asynchronous to synchronous etc. Designing for easy testability is difficult.).  Interface design (linear to digital.

FOLLOWINGS CAN BE INTERFACED WITH EMBEDDED SYSTEM OR µC. Relays Motors 7 segment display LCD & LED display Infrared Sensor Ultrasonic Sensor LED cubes Op-ampr Key-Board Digital Cameras Different Alarms Colour Detector Temperature Detector Moisture Detector A cell phone Timers External RAM Any Electronic Circuit or Device .

Programming Programming in embedded systems means to create or design a software for microcontroller to perform a specific operation or to interface a particular device or circuit. and other IC programming softwares.. Keil µVision etc. Here we have used Keil µVision 3.1. . For programming many software can be used like Microsoft Visual Studio.

That is the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular . Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor. but not for other microprocessors.CONCEPT OF COMPILER & CROSS COMPILER COMPILE R Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code.

 So the definition of cross compiler is a compiler that . And the compiler used for cross development is called cross compiler. It means being in one environment you are writing a code for another environment is called cross development.CROSS COMPILER A cross compiler is similar to the compilers but we write a program for the target processor (like 8051 and its derivatives) on the host processors (like computer of x86).

simulators. evaluation boards. and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3. macro assemblers. debuggers. 251. and 8051 MCU families. XC16x/C16x/ST10.ABOUT KEIL µVISION 3 Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers. . real-time kernels. integrated environments.

assembler. It provides several development tools like     IDE (Integrated Development environment)    Project Manager  Simulator    Debugger    C Cross Compiler. Linker  The Keil ARM tool kit includes three main tools. compiler and linker.  A linker is used to create an absolute object module suitable for our in-circuit emulator.KEIL C CROSS COMPILER  Keil is a German based Software development company.  An assembler is used to assemble the ARM assembly program. Cross Assembler.  .  A compiler is used to compile the C source code into an object file.

delay(50). }   void main() { //Alternate glow of single LED while(s1==0) { led=0x55. } } .j<1275. led=0xF0. for(i=0.A PROGRAM TO GLOW 8 LEDs IN TWO DIFFERENT PATTERNS USING PUSH BUTTONS #include <reg51. delay(50). sbit s2=P1^1.j++).   void delay(unsigned int time) { int i.i++) for(j=0.i<time.h> #define led P2 sbit s1=P1^0. delay(50). delay(50).j. led=0xAA. } //Alternate glow of LED pair while(s2==0) { led=0x0F.

FOR 1ST PATTERN 0 1 0 1 = (0x55)16 1 0 1 0 = (0xAA)16 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 .

FOR 2ND PATTERN 0 0 0 1 = (0x0F)16 1 1 1 0 = (0xF0)16 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 .

ATMEL uses parallel burning. NXT uses serial burning.Program burning in MICROCONTROLLER 1. In microcontroller the program burning is done serial or parallel depending on the type of microcontroller used. . There are plenty of flash burners are available for 8 to 80 pin IC burning capacity.

WORKING DEVELPOMENT BOARD .

.  Aerospace and Avionics.  Smart card industry.  Cell phones  Security Systems.  Electronic Payment Solution Sectors (ATMs)  Telecommunications. Embedded systems has vast application areas : Automobile Sector.APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM 1.  Defence system.  Household Appliances.  Different Alarm Systems like Fire alarm.  Railways.

.

Automobile Sector  Steering             Accelerator Gear Break Speedometer Fuel Indicator Engine Window glass open/close Remote Locking Air conditioner Mirror Sound system Mobile Transceiver .

Anti-lock braking system (ABS)  Electronic Stability Control (ESC/ESP)  Traction control (TCS)  Automatic four-wheel drive  Turning indicator  Front & Back Light  Seat comfort mode  Navigation System (GPS)  LCD Display  Anti Theft Alarm  Glass Wiper  Satellite TV  Electronic Ignition  .

electronics. and embedded software.AEROSPACE AND AVIONICS Aerospace and Avionics demand a complex mixture of hardware. electronics and embedded software must interact with many other entities and system. hardware. Navigation System GPS & RADAR system Weapon Controls Auto Pilot Mode Surveillance . For efficient working.

Audio and Visual communication Height and speed indicator Ground control Ignition system High speed sensor data recorders .

TELECOM INDUSTRY • The Telecom industry utilizes numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to mobile phones at the end-user. • The Telecom computer network also uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data. .

HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES Embedded System is used in following consumer electronics  devices and machines :Refrigerator Microwave oven Washing machine Dishwasher LED & LED TVs Home theaters Air conditioner PC and Laptops .

HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES • • • • • • Video game console DVD players Hand drier Hair drier Digital cameras Electronic tooth brush .

and highperformance electronic payment solutions that are easy to use and highly secure. Embedded engineers knowledgeable in trusted proprietary technology develop the secure. .ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SOLUTIONS SECTOR (ATMs) In the present times there is stiff competition amongst Embedded solutions providers to deliver innovative. encrypted transactions between payment systems and major financial institutions.

It is driven by retailers. . Embedded technologies compatible with mobile are being developed to promote payment systems. anytime.The market for mobile payments systems is growing rapidly. and other businesses that want to service customers anywhere. With the use of mobile devices. restaurants. mostly mobile phones becoming very popular.

though began prominently as either a debit or a credit card.SMART CARDS INDUSTRY Smart cards. are now being introduced in personal identification and entitlement schemes at regional. and international levels. Smart cards are appearing now as . national.

? ANY QUERIE S .

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