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GP203 THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER 1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
To understand the concept of unit .

1.1 Concept of Unit and


Dimension
Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be able to:
1. State the basic concepts in
Thermodynamic.
2. Described the physical quantities of
thermodynamics.
3. Calculate the examples of conversion
factors.
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Introduction
1.1 What is Thermodynamics??
Convert heat
into power

Greek words therme (heat)


- dynamics (power)
Thermodynamics the science of energy
- the study of the transfer of
energy,
the work done & its
affect on matter
One of the most fundamental laws
- conservation of energy principle

Examples

Fundamental Units

The system of units called SI


(International System of Units).
It is a legally accepted system in
many countries.
There are six fundamental physical
quantities which absolutely
independent of one another.
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Fundamental Units
QUANTITY

UNIT

SYMBOL

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time
Length

Second
Meter

s
m

Temperature

Degree Kelvin

Electric Current

Ampere

Luminous Intensity

Candela

cd

Amount of Matter

Mole

mol
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Derived Units

All physical quantities which can be


expressed in terms of one or more
of the fundamental units are known
as derived quantities.
For example: area, volume, density,
velocity etc since they depend on
one or more of the fundamental
quantities.
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Imperial Units

The system of imperial units or the


imperial system is also known as
British Imperial.
The system came into official use
across the British Empire.
Some examples: inch, feet, yard,
miles, gallon, pound, stone etc.
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Temperature Scales
The relations between temperature scales are:

T (K) = T(oC) + 273.15

T (oF) = 1.8T(oC) + 32.0


T (oF) = 1.8 (T(K)-273.15) +
32.0

UNIT CONVERSIONS

Conversion of units is the conversion


between different units of measurement
for the same quantity, typically through
multiplicative conversion factors.
For examples:
1
1
1
1
1
1

kg = 1000 g
m = 100 cm = 1000 mm
km = 1000 m
hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
bar = 1 x 105 N/m2 = 1 x 102 kN/m2
m3 = 1000 litre or 1 litre = 1 x 10-3 m3
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MULTIPLYING FACTORS
Multiplying Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1000000000000

1012

tera

1000000000

109

giga

1000000

10

mega

1000

10

kilo

100

10

hecto

10

101

deca

0.1

10-1

0.01

Do you know?

Multiple Prefix

Symbol

1024

yotta

1021

zetta

da

1018

exa

desi

1015

peta

10-2

centi

10-15

femto

0.001

10-3

milli

10-18

atto

0.000001

10-6

micro

0.000000001

10-9

nano

10-21

zepto

0.000000000001

10

pico

10-24

yocto

-12

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UNIT CONVERSIONS
EXAMPLES:
1. Convert 1 km/h to m/s.
2. Convert 25 g/mm3 to kg/m3.
Tutorial:
Convert the following data:
3. 3 N/cm2 to kN/m2
4. 15 MN/m2 to N/m2
5. 15 mg/litre to kg/m3
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1.2 The basic concept of


Thermodynamics
Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be able to:
1. Define the principles of a system,
boundary, surrounding.
2. Clarify the properties of systems, state
and equilibrium.

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The Principles of A System


Some more notes:
The boundary of a system can be fixed or
movable.
The boundary is the contact surface
shared by both the system and the
surroundings.
Systems may be considered to be closed
or open depending on whether a fixed
mass or a fixed volume in space is
chosen for study.
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DEFINITION OF A SYSTEM,
BOUNDARY & SURROUNDING
System
a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen
for
study.

Surrounding
The mass or region outside the system.

Boundary
The real or imaginary surface that separates the
system from its surroundings.

A Closed System

Also known as a control mass or just


system
Consists of a fixed amount of mass and
no mass can cross its boundary (no mass
can enter or leave a closed system).
Energy (heat or work) can cross the
boundary.
Volume of a closed system does not have
to be fixed.
If energy is not allowed to cross16the
boundary, that system is called an

An Open System

Is a control volume.
Both mass and energy can cross the
boundary.
It usually encloses a device that
involves mass flow such as a
compressor, turbine or nozzle.
Most control volumes have fixed
boundaries and thus do not involve
any moving boundaries.
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Interactions of Thermodynamic
Systems
Type of
system

Mass flow

Work

Heat

Open
Closed
Isolated

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Open and Closed System


A Closed System

An Open System
mass
no

Closed system
yes
m = constant

energy

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Properties Of A System

Any characteristic of a system is called a


property.
For example: pressure P, temperature T, volume
V and mass m and so on.
Properties are considered to be either intensive
or extensive.
Intensive properties are those that are
independent of the mass of a system such as
temperature, pressure and density.
Extensive properties are those whose values
depend on the size --- or extent --- of the
system. Example: total mass, total volume and
total momentum
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Criterion to Differentiate Intensive


and Extensive Properties

m
V
T
P

Extensive
properties

Intensive
properties

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State

A thermodynamic state is a set of


values of properties of a thermodynamic
system that must be specified to
reproduce the system.
The individual parameters are known as
state variables, state parameters or
thermodynamic variables.
At a given state, all the properties of a
system have fixed values.
If the value of even one property
changes, the state will change to a
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different one.

State

A system at two different states.

m = 2 kg
T1 = 20oC
V1 = 1.5 m3
State 1

m = 2 kg
T2 = 20oC
V2 = 2.5 m3

State 2
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Process and Cycle

Any change that a system undergoes


from one equilibrium state to another is
called a process.
The series of states through which a
system passes during a process is called
the path of the process.
To describe a process completely, one
should specify the initial and final states
of process as well as the path if follows
and the interactions with the
surroundings.
A system is said to have undergone a
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cycle if it returns to its initial state
at the

Process and Cycle


i = Initial state
f = Final state
Arrow: show the
process flow
Process path

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Process and Cycle


CYCLE

1 = initial state
2 = final state

Process from
1 to 2 and
return to 1

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1.3 The First Law of


Thermodynamics
GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
Relate the concept of the first law of
thermodynamics.
Apply the concept of the first law of
thermodynamics.

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First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics refers to


thermodynamic processes in which heat and
work can be distinguished and measured.
It is often expressed by the statement that in a
thermodynamic process the increment in the
internal energy of a system is equal to the
increment of heat supplied to the system,
minus the increment of work done by the
system on its surroundings.
The first law of thermodynamics observes the
principle of conservation of energy. Energy can
be transformed, i.e. changed from one form to
another, but cannot be created nor destroyed.
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First Law of Thermodynamics

When a system undergoes a


thermodynamic cycle then the net
heat supplied to the system from its
surroundings is equal to the net
work done by the systems on its
surroundings.

dQ = dW
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Energy transfer by heat

Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system


in two distinct forms: heat and work.
Heat is defined as the form of energy that is
transferred between two systems (or a system and
its surroundings) by virtue of a temperature
difference.
When an object is at a different temperature from
another body or its surroundings, heat flows so
that the body and the surroundings reach the
same temperature, at which point they are in
thermal equilibrium.
Such spontaneous heat transfer always occurs
from a region of high temperature to another
region of lower temperature, as required by the
second law of thermodynamics.
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Energy transfer by heat

In thermodynamics, the term heat simply


means heat transfer.
Heat flow is understood to mean the transfer
of thermal energy.
The transfer of heat into a system is
frequently referred to as heat addition and the
transfer of heat out of a system as heat
rejection.
A process during which there is no heat
transfer is called an adiabatic process.
Heat is transferred by three mechanisms:
conduction, convection and radiation.
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Energy transfer by heat

Conduction or diffusion

Convection

The transfer of energy between objects that are


in physical contact
The transfer of energy between an object and
its environment, due to fluid motion

Radiation

The transfer of energy to or from a body by


means of the emission or absorption of
electromagnetic radiation

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Energy transfer by work

Work an energy interaction between a system


and its surroundings. Unit: kJ
Work is the energy transfer associated with a force
acting through a distance.
For example: a rising piston, a rotating shaft are
associated with work interactions.
The work done
during a process
between states 1
and 2 is denoted
by W12 or simply
W.
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Formal sign convention for heat


and work

Heat transfer to a system and work done


by a system are positive
Heat transfer from a system and work done
on a system are negative
For example:

A work input of 5 kJ: W = - 5 kJ


A heat loss of 3 kJ: Q = - 3 kJ
A work produced by a system of 10 kJ: W = +
10kJ
A heat added to a system of 8 kJ: Q = + 8kJ

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Internal Energy

Internal energy
The store of energy within any fluid can be
increased or decreased as a result of various
processes carried out on or by the fluid.
The energy stored within a fluid which results
from the internal motion of its atoms and
molecules is called its internal energy and it is
usually designated by the letter U.
If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is
discussed this is then called the specific internal
energy and is designated by u.
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Internal Energy

The internal energy is the total energy


contained by a thermodynamics system.
Internal energy has two major components,
kinetic energy and potential energy.

Equation for internal energy;

dU = dQ dW
U2 U1 = Q12 W12
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Energy Balance for Close


System
Example 1.1
A close system undergoes a
process in which there is a work
done from the system of 50 kJ
and a heat transfer of 120 kJ to
the surroundings. Calculate the
change of internal energy and
state whether it is an increased
or decreased.
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Energy Balance for Close


System
Example 1.2
An internal combustion engine is
actuating an air compressor. At
the beginning of the expansion
process, the internal energy is
430 kJ. Determine the internal
energy at the end of the process
if work done of 110 kNm is being
produced while the heat rejected
to the surroundings is 70 kJ.
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Energy Balance for Close


System
Example 1.3
Calculate the changes of internal energy
and state whether the internal energy is
increase or decrease for the following
cases:i. A system is received 740 kJ heat
and produced 460 kNm work.
ii. Work done by piston towards the gas is
35 kJ/kg and heat rejected is
55 kJ/kg.
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1.4 Perfect Gas


Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be
able to:
1. Define perfect or ideal gas in
terms of the molecular model.
2. Explain the gas constant,
universal gas constant and
general gas equation.
3. Describe the law of ideal gas.
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Definition of Perfect Gases

A perfect gas or ideal gas is a collection of


particles that:
Are in constant, random motion
Have no intermolecular attractions (which
leads to elastic collisions in which no energy
is exchanged or lost)
Are considered to be volume-less points.
The principle properties used to define the
state of a gaseous system are pressure (P),
volume (V) and temperature (T).
Two laws describing the behavior of a perfect
gas are Boyles Law and Charles Law.
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Boyles Law

The Boyles Law:

Provided the
temperature T of a
perfect gas remains
constant, then volume
V of a given mass of
gas is inversely
proportional to the
pressure P of the gas.

PV = Constant if
temperature remains
constant

If a gas changes from


state 1 to state 2 during
an isothermal process,
then
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Boyles Law
Example 1.4
A quantity of a certain perfect gas is
heated at a constant temperature from
an initial state of 0.22 m3 and 325
kN/m2 to a final state of 170 kN/m2.
Calculate the final volume of the gas.

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Charles Law

The Charles Law:

Provided the pressure P


of a given mass of gas
remains constant, then
volume V of the gas will
be directly proportional
to the absolute
temperature T of the
gas.

V/T = Constant if
pressure remains
constant

If a gas changes from


state 1 to state 2 during
an constant pressure
process, then
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Charles Law
Example 1.5
A quantity of gas at 0.54 m3 and 345oC
undergoes a constant pressure process
that causes the volume of the gas to
decreases to 0.32 m3. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the end of
the process.

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Universal Gases Law

The relation which gives the volume of a gas


when both temperature and the pressure are
changed is stated as equation below:
PV
cons tan t R
T
P1V1 P2V2

T1
T2

No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but


many gases tend towards it.
An imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called
a perfect gas and the equation is called the
characteristic equation of state of a perfect
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gas.

Universal Gases Law

The constant, R is called the ideal gas


constant. Unit is Nm/kgK or J/kgK.
Each perfect gas has a different gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
as

PV RT

Or for m kg, occupying V m3,

PV mRT

Another form of the characteristic equation


can be derived using the kilogram-mole as a
unit.
The kilogram-mole is defined as a quantity of
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a gas equivalent to m kg of the gas, where M

Universal Gases Law

From the definition of the kilogram-mole, for m kg


of a gas, we have

m nM

where n is the number of moles and M is the


molecular weight of the gas.
Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogrammole will be written simply as mole. So,

PV nMRT

PV
MR
nT

Avogadros hypothesis states that the volume of 1


mole of any gas is the same as the volume of 1
mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the
same temperature and pressure.
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Universal Gases Law

Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the


same value of P and T.
That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all
gases.
This constant is called the universal gas
constant and
is
given
the
symbol
R
.
o
PV
MR Ro
PV nRoT
nT
Or since

MR Ro

Then,

Ro
R
M

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Universal Gases Law

Experiment has shown that the volume of 1


mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1oC is
approximately 22.71 m3.
Therefore; 5

PV
1x10 x 22.71
Ro

8314.4 J / mole. K
nT
1x 273.15

Conclution;

R0 also can rewrite as 8.314 kJ/kgK and R =


0.287 kJ/kgK
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Universal Gases Law


Example 1.6
0.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed
cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2 and a
temperature of 45oC. The gas is compressed
until the pressure reaches 1.27 MN/m2 and the
temperature is 83oC. If the gas is assumed to
be a perfect gas, determine:
a) The mass of gas (kg)
b) The final volume of gas (m3)
Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kgK

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The Law of Ideal Gas

The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a


hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation
to the behavior of many gases under many
conditions, although it has several limitations.
The state of an amount of gas is determined by its
pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern
form of the equation is: PV = nRT
where n is the amount of substance of gas (also
known as number of moles) and R is the ideal, or
universal gas constant. In SI units, n is measured
in moles, and T in kelvin. R has the value 8.314
kJ/kgK.
The temperature used in the equation of state is
an absolute temperature: in the SI system of units,
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kelvin

1.5 Specific Heat Capacity

Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be
able to:
Explain the specific heat at
constant pressure and constant
volume.

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Specific Heat Capacity

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat


energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the
gas by 1 degree while the volume of the gas
remains constant, then the amount of heat energy
supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant volume, Cv. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.
Heat flow in a conctant volume process,

Q = mCv (T2 T1)

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Specific Heat Capacity

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat


energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the
gas by 1 degree while the pressure of the gas
remains constant, then the amount of heat energy
supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure, Cp. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.

Heat flow in a reversible conctant pressure


process,

Q = mCp (T2 T1)

For a perfect gas, the values of Cv and Cp are


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constant for any one gas at all pressures
and

Relationship Between Specific Heats

R = Cp - Cv
Specific Heat Ratio,

The ratio of the specific heat at constant


pressure to the specific heat at constant
volume is given the symbol

CP

CV
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Specific Heat Ratio

In general,
is about 1.4 for diatomic
gases (carbon monoxide, CO; hydrogen, H 2;
nitrogen, N2, oxygen, O2).

For monatomic gases (argon, Ar; helium, He),


is about 1.6.
For triatomic gases (carbon dioxide, CO2;
sulphur dioxide, SO2),
is about 1.3.

For some hydrocarbons, the value of


quite low, ethane C2H6,
= 1.22 ;
isobutane C4H10,
= 1.11

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is

Some Useful Relationship


R
Cv
( 1)

R
Cp
( 1)

Example 1.7
A certain perfect gas has specific heat
as follows
Cp = 0.846 kJ/kgK

and

Cv = 0.657 kJ/kgK

Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of


the gas.
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Charles Law
Example 1.6
An unknown gas has a mass of 1.5 kg
contained in a bottle of volume 1.17
m3 while at a temperature of 300 K,
and a pressure of 200 kPa/ determine
the ideal gas constant and molecular
weight of the gas?

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END OF CHAPTER 1

NEXT CHAPTER
CHAPTER 2 : NON-FLOW PROCESS

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