You are on page 1of 60

# GP203 THERMODYNAMICS

CHAPTER 1
BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
To understand the concept of unit .

## 1.1 Concept of Unit and

Dimension
Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be able to:
1. State the basic concepts in
Thermodynamic.
2. Described the physical quantities of
thermodynamics.
3. Calculate the examples of conversion
factors.
2

Introduction
1.1 What is Thermodynamics??
Convert heat
into power

## Greek words therme (heat)

- dynamics (power)
Thermodynamics the science of energy
- the study of the transfer of
energy,
the work done & its
affect on matter
One of the most fundamental laws
- conservation of energy principle

Examples

Fundamental Units

## The system of units called SI

(International System of Units).
It is a legally accepted system in
many countries.
There are six fundamental physical
quantities which absolutely
independent of one another.
5

Fundamental Units
QUANTITY

UNIT

SYMBOL

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time
Length

Second
Meter

s
m

Temperature

Degree Kelvin

Electric Current

Ampere

Luminous Intensity

Candela

cd

Amount of Matter

Mole

mol
6

Derived Units

## All physical quantities which can be

expressed in terms of one or more
of the fundamental units are known
as derived quantities.
For example: area, volume, density,
velocity etc since they depend on
one or more of the fundamental
quantities.
7

Imperial Units

## The system of imperial units or the

imperial system is also known as
British Imperial.
The system came into official use
across the British Empire.
Some examples: inch, feet, yard,
miles, gallon, pound, stone etc.
8

Temperature Scales
The relations between temperature scales are:

## T (oF) = 1.8T(oC) + 32.0

T (oF) = 1.8 (T(K)-273.15) +
32.0

UNIT CONVERSIONS

## Conversion of units is the conversion

between different units of measurement
for the same quantity, typically through
multiplicative conversion factors.
For examples:
1
1
1
1
1
1

kg = 1000 g
m = 100 cm = 1000 mm
km = 1000 m
hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds
bar = 1 x 105 N/m2 = 1 x 102 kN/m2
m3 = 1000 litre or 1 litre = 1 x 10-3 m3
10

MULTIPLYING FACTORS
Multiplying Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1000000000000

1012

tera

1000000000

109

giga

1000000

10

mega

1000

10

kilo

100

10

hecto

10

101

deca

0.1

10-1

0.01

Do you know?

Multiple Prefix

Symbol

1024

yotta

1021

zetta

da

1018

exa

desi

1015

peta

10-2

centi

10-15

femto

0.001

10-3

milli

10-18

atto

0.000001

10-6

micro

0.000000001

10-9

nano

10-21

zepto

0.000000000001

10

pico

10-24

yocto

-12

11

UNIT CONVERSIONS
EXAMPLES:
1. Convert 1 km/h to m/s.
2. Convert 25 g/mm3 to kg/m3.
Tutorial:
Convert the following data:
3. 3 N/cm2 to kN/m2
4. 15 MN/m2 to N/m2
5. 15 mg/litre to kg/m3
12

## 1.2 The basic concept of

Thermodynamics
Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be able to:
1. Define the principles of a system,
boundary, surrounding.
2. Clarify the properties of systems, state
and equilibrium.

13

## The Principles of A System

Some more notes:
The boundary of a system can be fixed or
movable.
The boundary is the contact surface
shared by both the system and the
surroundings.
Systems may be considered to be closed
or open depending on whether a fixed
mass or a fixed volume in space is
chosen for study.
14

DEFINITION OF A SYSTEM,
BOUNDARY & SURROUNDING
System
a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen
for
study.

Surrounding
The mass or region outside the system.

Boundary
The real or imaginary surface that separates the
system from its surroundings.

A Closed System

## Also known as a control mass or just

system
Consists of a fixed amount of mass and
no mass can cross its boundary (no mass
can enter or leave a closed system).
Energy (heat or work) can cross the
boundary.
Volume of a closed system does not have
to be fixed.
If energy is not allowed to cross16the
boundary, that system is called an

An Open System

Is a control volume.
Both mass and energy can cross the
boundary.
It usually encloses a device that
involves mass flow such as a
compressor, turbine or nozzle.
Most control volumes have fixed
boundaries and thus do not involve
any moving boundaries.
17

Interactions of Thermodynamic
Systems
Type of
system

Mass flow

Work

Heat

Open
Closed
Isolated

18

## Open and Closed System

A Closed System

An Open System
mass
no

Closed system
yes
m = constant

energy

19

Properties Of A System

## Any characteristic of a system is called a

property.
For example: pressure P, temperature T, volume
V and mass m and so on.
Properties are considered to be either intensive
or extensive.
Intensive properties are those that are
independent of the mass of a system such as
temperature, pressure and density.
Extensive properties are those whose values
depend on the size --- or extent --- of the
system. Example: total mass, total volume and
total momentum
20

## Criterion to Differentiate Intensive

and Extensive Properties

m
V
T
P

Extensive
properties

Intensive
properties

21

State

## A thermodynamic state is a set of

values of properties of a thermodynamic
system that must be specified to
reproduce the system.
The individual parameters are known as
state variables, state parameters or
thermodynamic variables.
At a given state, all the properties of a
system have fixed values.
If the value of even one property
changes, the state will change to a
22
different one.

State

m = 2 kg
T1 = 20oC
V1 = 1.5 m3
State 1

m = 2 kg
T2 = 20oC
V2 = 2.5 m3

State 2
23

## Any change that a system undergoes

from one equilibrium state to another is
called a process.
The series of states through which a
system passes during a process is called
the path of the process.
To describe a process completely, one
should specify the initial and final states
of process as well as the path if follows
and the interactions with the
surroundings.
A system is said to have undergone a
24
cycle if it returns to its initial state
at the

## Process and Cycle

i = Initial state
f = Final state
Arrow: show the
process flow
Process path

25

## Process and Cycle

CYCLE

1 = initial state
2 = final state

Process from
1 to 2 and
return to 1

26

## 1.3 The First Law of

Thermodynamics
GENERAL OBJECTIVES:
Relate the concept of the first law of
thermodynamics.
Apply the concept of the first law of
thermodynamics.

27

## The first law of thermodynamics refers to

thermodynamic processes in which heat and
work can be distinguished and measured.
It is often expressed by the statement that in a
thermodynamic process the increment in the
internal energy of a system is equal to the
increment of heat supplied to the system,
minus the increment of work done by the
system on its surroundings.
The first law of thermodynamics observes the
principle of conservation of energy. Energy can
be transformed, i.e. changed from one form to
another, but cannot be created nor destroyed.
28

## When a system undergoes a

thermodynamic cycle then the net
heat supplied to the system from its
surroundings is equal to the net
work done by the systems on its
surroundings.

dQ = dW
29

## Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system

in two distinct forms: heat and work.
Heat is defined as the form of energy that is
transferred between two systems (or a system and
its surroundings) by virtue of a temperature
difference.
When an object is at a different temperature from
another body or its surroundings, heat flows so
that the body and the surroundings reach the
same temperature, at which point they are in
thermal equilibrium.
Such spontaneous heat transfer always occurs
from a region of high temperature to another
region of lower temperature, as required by the
second law of thermodynamics.
30

## In thermodynamics, the term heat simply

means heat transfer.
Heat flow is understood to mean the transfer
of thermal energy.
The transfer of heat into a system is
frequently referred to as heat addition and the
transfer of heat out of a system as heat
rejection.
A process during which there is no heat
transfer is called an adiabatic process.
Heat is transferred by three mechanisms:
conduction, convection and radiation.
31

## Energy transfer by heat

Conduction or diffusion

Convection

## The transfer of energy between objects that are

in physical contact
The transfer of energy between an object and
its environment, due to fluid motion

Radiation

## The transfer of energy to or from a body by

means of the emission or absorption of
electromagnetic radiation

32

## Work an energy interaction between a system

and its surroundings. Unit: kJ
Work is the energy transfer associated with a force
acting through a distance.
For example: a rising piston, a rotating shaft are
associated with work interactions.
The work done
during a process
between states 1
and 2 is denoted
by W12 or simply
W.
33

and work

## Heat transfer to a system and work done

by a system are positive
Heat transfer from a system and work done
on a system are negative
For example:

## A work input of 5 kJ: W = - 5 kJ

A heat loss of 3 kJ: Q = - 3 kJ
A work produced by a system of 10 kJ: W = +
10kJ
A heat added to a system of 8 kJ: Q = + 8kJ

34

Internal Energy

Internal energy
The store of energy within any fluid can be
increased or decreased as a result of various
processes carried out on or by the fluid.
The energy stored within a fluid which results
from the internal motion of its atoms and
molecules is called its internal energy and it is
usually designated by the letter U.
If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is
discussed this is then called the specific internal
energy and is designated by u.
35

Internal Energy

## The internal energy is the total energy

contained by a thermodynamics system.
Internal energy has two major components,
kinetic energy and potential energy.

dU = dQ dW
U2 U1 = Q12 W12
36

## Energy Balance for Close

System
Example 1.1
A close system undergoes a
process in which there is a work
done from the system of 50 kJ
and a heat transfer of 120 kJ to
the surroundings. Calculate the
change of internal energy and
state whether it is an increased
or decreased.
37

## Energy Balance for Close

System
Example 1.2
An internal combustion engine is
actuating an air compressor. At
the beginning of the expansion
process, the internal energy is
430 kJ. Determine the internal
energy at the end of the process
if work done of 110 kNm is being
produced while the heat rejected
to the surroundings is 70 kJ.
38

## Energy Balance for Close

System
Example 1.3
Calculate the changes of internal energy
and state whether the internal energy is
increase or decrease for the following
cases:i. A system is received 740 kJ heat
and produced 460 kNm work.
ii. Work done by piston towards the gas is
35 kJ/kg and heat rejected is
55 kJ/kg.
39

## 1.4 Perfect Gas

Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be
able to:
1. Define perfect or ideal gas in
terms of the molecular model.
2. Explain the gas constant,
universal gas constant and
general gas equation.
3. Describe the law of ideal gas.
40

## A perfect gas or ideal gas is a collection of

particles that:
Are in constant, random motion
Have no intermolecular attractions (which
leads to elastic collisions in which no energy
is exchanged or lost)
Are considered to be volume-less points.
The principle properties used to define the
state of a gaseous system are pressure (P),
volume (V) and temperature (T).
Two laws describing the behavior of a perfect
gas are Boyles Law and Charles Law.
41

Boyles Law

## The Boyles Law:

Provided the
temperature T of a
perfect gas remains
constant, then volume
V of a given mass of
gas is inversely
proportional to the
pressure P of the gas.

PV = Constant if
temperature remains
constant

## If a gas changes from

state 1 to state 2 during
an isothermal process,
then
42

Boyles Law
Example 1.4
A quantity of a certain perfect gas is
heated at a constant temperature from
an initial state of 0.22 m3 and 325
kN/m2 to a final state of 170 kN/m2.
Calculate the final volume of the gas.

43

Charles Law

## Provided the pressure P

of a given mass of gas
remains constant, then
volume V of the gas will
be directly proportional
to the absolute
temperature T of the
gas.

V/T = Constant if
pressure remains
constant

## If a gas changes from

state 1 to state 2 during
an constant pressure
process, then
44

Charles Law
Example 1.5
A quantity of gas at 0.54 m3 and 345oC
undergoes a constant pressure process
that causes the volume of the gas to
decreases to 0.32 m3. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the end of
the process.

45

## The relation which gives the volume of a gas

when both temperature and the pressure are
changed is stated as equation below:
PV
cons tan t R
T
P1V1 P2V2

T1
T2

## No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but

many gases tend towards it.
An imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called
a perfect gas and the equation is called the
characteristic equation of state of a perfect
46
gas.

## The constant, R is called the ideal gas

constant. Unit is Nm/kgK or J/kgK.
Each perfect gas has a different gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
as

PV RT

PV mRT

## Another form of the characteristic equation

can be derived using the kilogram-mole as a
unit.
The kilogram-mole is defined as a quantity of
47
a gas equivalent to m kg of the gas, where M

## From the definition of the kilogram-mole, for m kg

of a gas, we have

m nM

## where n is the number of moles and M is the

molecular weight of the gas.
Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogrammole will be written simply as mole. So,

PV nMRT

PV
MR
nT

## Avogadros hypothesis states that the volume of 1

mole of any gas is the same as the volume of 1
mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the
same temperature and pressure.
48

## Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the

same value of P and T.
That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all
gases.
This constant is called the universal gas
constant and
is
given
the
symbol
R
.
o
PV
MR Ro
PV nRoT
nT
Or since

MR Ro

Then,

Ro
R
M

49

## Experiment has shown that the volume of 1

mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1oC is
approximately 22.71 m3.
Therefore; 5

PV
1x10 x 22.71
Ro

8314.4 J / mole. K
nT
1x 273.15

Conclution;

0.287 kJ/kgK
50

## Universal Gases Law

Example 1.6
0.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed
cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2 and a
temperature of 45oC. The gas is compressed
until the pressure reaches 1.27 MN/m2 and the
temperature is 83oC. If the gas is assumed to
be a perfect gas, determine:
a) The mass of gas (kg)
b) The final volume of gas (m3)
Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kgK

51

## The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a

hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation
to the behavior of many gases under many
conditions, although it has several limitations.
The state of an amount of gas is determined by its
pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern
form of the equation is: PV = nRT
where n is the amount of substance of gas (also
known as number of moles) and R is the ideal, or
universal gas constant. In SI units, n is measured
in moles, and T in kelvin. R has the value 8.314
kJ/kgK.
The temperature used in the equation of state is
an absolute temperature: in the SI system of units,
52
kelvin

## 1.5 Specific Heat Capacity

Specific Objectives:
At the end of the unit, you will be
able to:
Explain the specific heat at
constant pressure and constant
volume.

53

## If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat

energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the
gas by 1 degree while the volume of the gas
remains constant, then the amount of heat energy
supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant volume, Cv. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.
Heat flow in a conctant volume process,

54

## If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat

energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the
gas by 1 degree while the pressure of the gas
remains constant, then the amount of heat energy
supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure, Cp. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.

process,

## For a perfect gas, the values of Cv and Cp are

55
constant for any one gas at all pressures
and

## Relationship Between Specific Heats

R = Cp - Cv
Specific Heat Ratio,

## The ratio of the specific heat at constant

pressure to the specific heat at constant
volume is given the symbol

CP

CV
56

## Specific Heat Ratio

In general,
is about 1.4 for diatomic
gases (carbon monoxide, CO; hydrogen, H 2;
nitrogen, N2, oxygen, O2).

## For monatomic gases (argon, Ar; helium, He),

is about 1.6.
For triatomic gases (carbon dioxide, CO2;
sulphur dioxide, SO2),
is about 1.3.

## For some hydrocarbons, the value of

quite low, ethane C2H6,
= 1.22 ;
isobutane C4H10,
= 1.11

57

is

## Some Useful Relationship

R
Cv
( 1)

R
Cp
( 1)

Example 1.7
A certain perfect gas has specific heat
as follows
Cp = 0.846 kJ/kgK

and

Cv = 0.657 kJ/kgK

## Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of

the gas.
58

Charles Law
Example 1.6
An unknown gas has a mass of 1.5 kg
contained in a bottle of volume 1.17
m3 while at a temperature of 300 K,
and a pressure of 200 kPa/ determine
the ideal gas constant and molecular
weight of the gas?

59

END OF CHAPTER 1

NEXT CHAPTER
CHAPTER 2 : NON-FLOW PROCESS

60