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You are on page 1of 60

CHAPTER 1

BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

To understand the concept of unit .

Dimension

Specific Objectives:

At the end of the unit, you will be able to:

1. State the basic concepts in

Thermodynamic.

2. Described the physical quantities of

thermodynamics.

3. Calculate the examples of conversion

factors.

2

Introduction

1.1 What is Thermodynamics??

Convert heat

into power

- dynamics (power)

Thermodynamics the science of energy

- the study of the transfer of

energy,

the work done & its

affect on matter

One of the most fundamental laws

- conservation of energy principle

Examples

Fundamental Units

(International System of Units).

It is a legally accepted system in

many countries.

There are six fundamental physical

quantities which absolutely

independent of one another.

5

Fundamental Units

QUANTITY

UNIT

SYMBOL

Mass

Kilogram

kg

Time

Length

Second

Meter

s

m

Temperature

Degree Kelvin

Electric Current

Ampere

Luminous Intensity

Candela

cd

Amount of Matter

Mole

mol

6

Derived Units

expressed in terms of one or more

of the fundamental units are known

as derived quantities.

For example: area, volume, density,

velocity etc since they depend on

one or more of the fundamental

quantities.

7

Imperial Units

imperial system is also known as

British Imperial.

The system came into official use

across the British Empire.

Some examples: inch, feet, yard,

miles, gallon, pound, stone etc.

8

Temperature Scales

The relations between temperature scales are:

T (oF) = 1.8 (T(K)-273.15) +

32.0

UNIT CONVERSIONS

between different units of measurement

for the same quantity, typically through

multiplicative conversion factors.

For examples:

1

1

1

1

1

1

kg = 1000 g

m = 100 cm = 1000 mm

km = 1000 m

hour = 60 minutes = 3600 seconds

bar = 1 x 105 N/m2 = 1 x 102 kN/m2

m3 = 1000 litre or 1 litre = 1 x 10-3 m3

10

MULTIPLYING FACTORS

Multiplying Factor

Prefix

Symbol

1000000000000

1012

tera

1000000000

109

giga

1000000

10

mega

1000

10

kilo

100

10

hecto

10

101

deca

0.1

10-1

0.01

Do you know?

Multiple Prefix

Symbol

1024

yotta

1021

zetta

da

1018

exa

desi

1015

peta

10-2

centi

10-15

femto

0.001

10-3

milli

10-18

atto

0.000001

10-6

micro

0.000000001

10-9

nano

10-21

zepto

0.000000000001

10

pico

10-24

yocto

-12

11

UNIT CONVERSIONS

EXAMPLES:

1. Convert 1 km/h to m/s.

2. Convert 25 g/mm3 to kg/m3.

Tutorial:

Convert the following data:

3. 3 N/cm2 to kN/m2

4. 15 MN/m2 to N/m2

5. 15 mg/litre to kg/m3

12

Thermodynamics

Specific Objectives:

At the end of the unit, you will be able to:

1. Define the principles of a system,

boundary, surrounding.

2. Clarify the properties of systems, state

and equilibrium.

13

Some more notes:

The boundary of a system can be fixed or

movable.

The boundary is the contact surface

shared by both the system and the

surroundings.

Systems may be considered to be closed

or open depending on whether a fixed

mass or a fixed volume in space is

chosen for study.

14

DEFINITION OF A SYSTEM,

BOUNDARY & SURROUNDING

System

a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen

for

study.

Surrounding

The mass or region outside the system.

Boundary

The real or imaginary surface that separates the

system from its surroundings.

A Closed System

system

Consists of a fixed amount of mass and

no mass can cross its boundary (no mass

can enter or leave a closed system).

Energy (heat or work) can cross the

boundary.

Volume of a closed system does not have

to be fixed.

If energy is not allowed to cross16the

boundary, that system is called an

An Open System

Is a control volume.

Both mass and energy can cross the

boundary.

It usually encloses a device that

involves mass flow such as a

compressor, turbine or nozzle.

Most control volumes have fixed

boundaries and thus do not involve

any moving boundaries.

17

Interactions of Thermodynamic

Systems

Type of

system

Mass flow

Work

Heat

Open

Closed

Isolated

18

A Closed System

An Open System

mass

no

Closed system

yes

m = constant

energy

19

Properties Of A System

property.

For example: pressure P, temperature T, volume

V and mass m and so on.

Properties are considered to be either intensive

or extensive.

Intensive properties are those that are

independent of the mass of a system such as

temperature, pressure and density.

Extensive properties are those whose values

depend on the size --- or extent --- of the

system. Example: total mass, total volume and

total momentum

20

and Extensive Properties

m

V

T

P

Extensive

properties

Intensive

properties

21

State

values of properties of a thermodynamic

system that must be specified to

reproduce the system.

The individual parameters are known as

state variables, state parameters or

thermodynamic variables.

At a given state, all the properties of a

system have fixed values.

If the value of even one property

changes, the state will change to a

22

different one.

State

m = 2 kg

T1 = 20oC

V1 = 1.5 m3

State 1

m = 2 kg

T2 = 20oC

V2 = 2.5 m3

State 2

23

from one equilibrium state to another is

called a process.

The series of states through which a

system passes during a process is called

the path of the process.

To describe a process completely, one

should specify the initial and final states

of process as well as the path if follows

and the interactions with the

surroundings.

A system is said to have undergone a

24

cycle if it returns to its initial state

at the

i = Initial state

f = Final state

Arrow: show the

process flow

Process path

25

CYCLE

1 = initial state

2 = final state

Process from

1 to 2 and

return to 1

26

Thermodynamics

GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

Relate the concept of the first law of

thermodynamics.

Apply the concept of the first law of

thermodynamics.

27

thermodynamic processes in which heat and

work can be distinguished and measured.

It is often expressed by the statement that in a

thermodynamic process the increment in the

internal energy of a system is equal to the

increment of heat supplied to the system,

minus the increment of work done by the

system on its surroundings.

The first law of thermodynamics observes the

principle of conservation of energy. Energy can

be transformed, i.e. changed from one form to

another, but cannot be created nor destroyed.

28

thermodynamic cycle then the net

heat supplied to the system from its

surroundings is equal to the net

work done by the systems on its

surroundings.

dQ = dW

29

in two distinct forms: heat and work.

Heat is defined as the form of energy that is

transferred between two systems (or a system and

its surroundings) by virtue of a temperature

difference.

When an object is at a different temperature from

another body or its surroundings, heat flows so

that the body and the surroundings reach the

same temperature, at which point they are in

thermal equilibrium.

Such spontaneous heat transfer always occurs

from a region of high temperature to another

region of lower temperature, as required by the

second law of thermodynamics.

30

means heat transfer.

Heat flow is understood to mean the transfer

of thermal energy.

The transfer of heat into a system is

frequently referred to as heat addition and the

transfer of heat out of a system as heat

rejection.

A process during which there is no heat

transfer is called an adiabatic process.

Heat is transferred by three mechanisms:

conduction, convection and radiation.

31

Conduction or diffusion

Convection

in physical contact

The transfer of energy between an object and

its environment, due to fluid motion

Radiation

means of the emission or absorption of

electromagnetic radiation

32

and its surroundings. Unit: kJ

Work is the energy transfer associated with a force

acting through a distance.

For example: a rising piston, a rotating shaft are

associated with work interactions.

The work done

during a process

between states 1

and 2 is denoted

by W12 or simply

W.

33

and work

by a system are positive

Heat transfer from a system and work done

on a system are negative

For example:

A heat loss of 3 kJ: Q = - 3 kJ

A work produced by a system of 10 kJ: W = +

10kJ

A heat added to a system of 8 kJ: Q = + 8kJ

34

Internal Energy

Internal energy

The store of energy within any fluid can be

increased or decreased as a result of various

processes carried out on or by the fluid.

The energy stored within a fluid which results

from the internal motion of its atoms and

molecules is called its internal energy and it is

usually designated by the letter U.

If the internal energy of the unit mass of fluid is

discussed this is then called the specific internal

energy and is designated by u.

35

Internal Energy

contained by a thermodynamics system.

Internal energy has two major components,

kinetic energy and potential energy.

dU = dQ dW

U2 U1 = Q12 W12

36

System

Example 1.1

A close system undergoes a

process in which there is a work

done from the system of 50 kJ

and a heat transfer of 120 kJ to

the surroundings. Calculate the

change of internal energy and

state whether it is an increased

or decreased.

37

System

Example 1.2

An internal combustion engine is

actuating an air compressor. At

the beginning of the expansion

process, the internal energy is

430 kJ. Determine the internal

energy at the end of the process

if work done of 110 kNm is being

produced while the heat rejected

to the surroundings is 70 kJ.

38

System

Example 1.3

Calculate the changes of internal energy

and state whether the internal energy is

increase or decrease for the following

cases:i. A system is received 740 kJ heat

and produced 460 kNm work.

ii. Work done by piston towards the gas is

35 kJ/kg and heat rejected is

55 kJ/kg.

39

Specific Objectives:

At the end of the unit, you will be

able to:

1. Define perfect or ideal gas in

terms of the molecular model.

2. Explain the gas constant,

universal gas constant and

general gas equation.

3. Describe the law of ideal gas.

40

particles that:

Are in constant, random motion

Have no intermolecular attractions (which

leads to elastic collisions in which no energy

is exchanged or lost)

Are considered to be volume-less points.

The principle properties used to define the

state of a gaseous system are pressure (P),

volume (V) and temperature (T).

Two laws describing the behavior of a perfect

gas are Boyles Law and Charles Law.

41

Boyles Law

Provided the

temperature T of a

perfect gas remains

constant, then volume

V of a given mass of

gas is inversely

proportional to the

pressure P of the gas.

PV = Constant if

temperature remains

constant

state 1 to state 2 during

an isothermal process,

then

42

Boyles Law

Example 1.4

A quantity of a certain perfect gas is

heated at a constant temperature from

an initial state of 0.22 m3 and 325

kN/m2 to a final state of 170 kN/m2.

Calculate the final volume of the gas.

43

Charles Law

of a given mass of gas

remains constant, then

volume V of the gas will

be directly proportional

to the absolute

temperature T of the

gas.

V/T = Constant if

pressure remains

constant

state 1 to state 2 during

an constant pressure

process, then

44

Charles Law

Example 1.5

A quantity of gas at 0.54 m3 and 345oC

undergoes a constant pressure process

that causes the volume of the gas to

decreases to 0.32 m3. Calculate the

temperature of the gas at the end of

the process.

45

when both temperature and the pressure are

changed is stated as equation below:

PV

cons tan t R

T

P1V1 P2V2

T1

T2

many gases tend towards it.

An imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called

a perfect gas and the equation is called the

characteristic equation of state of a perfect

46

gas.

constant. Unit is Nm/kgK or J/kgK.

Each perfect gas has a different gas constant.

The characteristic equation is usually written

as

PV RT

PV mRT

can be derived using the kilogram-mole as a

unit.

The kilogram-mole is defined as a quantity of

47

a gas equivalent to m kg of the gas, where M

of a gas, we have

m nM

molecular weight of the gas.

Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogrammole will be written simply as mole. So,

PV nMRT

PV

MR

nT

mole of any gas is the same as the volume of 1

mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the

same temperature and pressure.

48

same value of P and T.

That is the quantity PV/nT is constant for all

gases.

This constant is called the universal gas

constant and

is

given

the

symbol

R

.

o

PV

MR Ro

PV nRoT

nT

Or since

MR Ro

Then,

Ro

R

M

49

mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1oC is

approximately 22.71 m3.

Therefore; 5

PV

1x10 x 22.71

Ro

8314.4 J / mole. K

nT

1x 273.15

Conclution;

0.287 kJ/kgK

50

Example 1.6

0.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed

cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2 and a

temperature of 45oC. The gas is compressed

until the pressure reaches 1.27 MN/m2 and the

temperature is 83oC. If the gas is assumed to

be a perfect gas, determine:

a) The mass of gas (kg)

b) The final volume of gas (m3)

Given:

R = 0.29 kJ/kgK

51

hypothetical ideal gas. It is a good approximation

to the behavior of many gases under many

conditions, although it has several limitations.

The state of an amount of gas is determined by its

pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern

form of the equation is: PV = nRT

where n is the amount of substance of gas (also

known as number of moles) and R is the ideal, or

universal gas constant. In SI units, n is measured

in moles, and T in kelvin. R has the value 8.314

kJ/kgK.

The temperature used in the equation of state is

an absolute temperature: in the SI system of units,

52

kelvin

Specific Objectives:

At the end of the unit, you will be

able to:

Explain the specific heat at

constant pressure and constant

volume.

53

energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the

gas by 1 degree while the volume of the gas

remains constant, then the amount of heat energy

supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at

constant volume, Cv. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.

Heat flow in a conctant volume process,

54

energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the

gas by 1 degree while the pressure of the gas

remains constant, then the amount of heat energy

supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at

constant pressure, Cp. Unit is J/kgK or kJ/kgK.

process,

55

constant for any one gas at all pressures

and

R = Cp - Cv

Specific Heat Ratio,

pressure to the specific heat at constant

volume is given the symbol

CP

CV

56

In general,

is about 1.4 for diatomic

gases (carbon monoxide, CO; hydrogen, H 2;

nitrogen, N2, oxygen, O2).

is about 1.6.

For triatomic gases (carbon dioxide, CO2;

sulphur dioxide, SO2),

is about 1.3.

quite low, ethane C2H6,

= 1.22 ;

isobutane C4H10,

= 1.11

57

is

R

Cv

( 1)

R

Cp

( 1)

Example 1.7

A certain perfect gas has specific heat

as follows

Cp = 0.846 kJ/kgK

and

Cv = 0.657 kJ/kgK

the gas.

58

Charles Law

Example 1.6

An unknown gas has a mass of 1.5 kg

contained in a bottle of volume 1.17

m3 while at a temperature of 300 K,

and a pressure of 200 kPa/ determine

the ideal gas constant and molecular

weight of the gas?

59

END OF CHAPTER 1

NEXT CHAPTER

CHAPTER 2 : NON-FLOW PROCESS

60

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