Structure Composition Egg quality Preservation Functional properties Foams
White yolk Germinal disk Latebra Vitelline membrane Chalazae Chalazeferous layer Small sphere of light color yolk at the center of the yolk Blastoderm of the yolk, located at the edge of the yolk and connected to the white yolk Tube connecting the white yolk to the germinal disk in the yolk Sac enclosing the yolk Thick ropelike extension of the chalazeferous layer that aid in centering the yolk in the egg Membranous layer surrounding the vitelline membrane of the yolk
Albumen Thin albumen Thick albumen Air cell Shell membrane Bloom The white of an egg; consist of 3 layers The rather fluid egg white adjacent to the yolk and to the inner membrane The viscous white forming the middle layer of albumen Space between the inner and outer shell membranes at the large end of the eggs An inner membrane encasing the white and an outer membrane adjacent to the shell of the egg. Natural protective coating sealing the shell pores when an eggs is laid.
COMPOSITION More white than yolk Water; 90% water for white almost no fat 50% water in yolk almost a third fat Cholesterol; most found in yolk Lipoprotein; lecithin
The quality can be graded in or out of the shell Technique used for grading eggs in the shell, based on observing the eggs in silhouette while being rotated. Haugh unit; unit used to denote quality of albumen, correlates thick albumen height with egg weight. Other measures of quality out of the shell are albumen index & yolk index.
Grading measurement of albumen to determine quality in the basis of the amount of thick white Measurement of egg quality base on the ratio of the height of he yolk to its width
QUALITY OF EGG
Firstly, fill a deep bowl with water and carefully lower the egg into the water. A very fresh egg will immediately sink to the bottom and lie flat on its side. This is because the air cell within the egg is very small. The egg should also feel quite heavy.
As the egg starts to lose its freshness and more air enters the egg, it will begin to float and stand upright. The smaller end will lie on the bottom of the bowl, whilst the broader end will point towards the surface. The egg will still be good enough to consume, however, if the egg fully floats in the water and does not touch the bottom of the bowl at all, it should be discarded, as it will most likely be bad. A less fresh egg will contain a flatter yolk, that may break easily and a thinner white that spreads quite far
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Marketed outside their shell Need to ensure the safety of the product Hold liquid whole eggs at 61°C for 3.5 min Yolk also can be pasteurize, which sugar or salt is added require high temp to kill salmonella
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Spray drying commonly technique Long term storage Whole egg solid, yolk solid, fortified whole egg solid Challenge; Potential changes that can impair whipping characteristic, color & flavor. Fermentation by bacteria before drying During storage; glucose can react with cephalin in yolk to produce off flavor. Eliminate oxygen in packaging.
White perform very well, not require special treatment Frozen egg white can be store in freezer, then thawed for use. Foaming power & flavor are excellent after freezing & thawing Egg yolks form gels during freezing, unless either sugar or salt added prior to freezing
Can be categorized as: i. Coloring agent ii. Emulsification iii. Thickening agent iv. Texturizing agent Negative role:
Provide a source of cholesterol (yolk) Protein to which a few people have an allergic response
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Bright pigment in yolk give color 4 major caratenoid pigment in the yolk 2 pigment contributing the majority of the color; lutein & zeaxanthine Cryptoxanthin & carotene also contribute to the overall color of the yolk Yolk color varies with the season of the year; fairly pale yellow to a slightly orange tone
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Egg yolk is an example of oil in water emulsion Lecithin & lysolecithin responsible to remarkable ability of egg yolk to act as emulsifying agent An oil in water emulsion; when egg yolk is utilized as an ingredients in food mixture containing some types of fluid fat and water. Yolk particle contribute to the stability of an emulsion by interacting at the surface of the oil droplets to form a layer. Mayonnaise , hollandaise sauce, baking product
Use as thickening agent because of the effect of heat on their proteins, resulting in denaturation and coagulation. Problem; coagulation happen. Lead to curdle sauce, weeping custard, tough fried egg.
Egg white protein Yolk protein 65C 70C
Start to coagulate Lose the ability to flow (if no ingredient added)
If other ingredient added, coagulation temperature raised
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Utilized in certain baked product Sponge cake & puffy omelets Yolk foams are heavy compared with white foams Stable to permit to be folded with other ingredients Contribute to textural characteristic and volume of the baked product
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With agitation, the egg albumen can be spread over a large surface area and air can be incorporated into the bubbles created by beating the protein. Some of the protein are denatured by the beating action Then aggregate to enhance stability of the developing foam 2 factors in egg white foams are stability & volume
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By measuring drainage of liquid from a given quantity of a foam over a specific period of time Beating; foam become increasingly stable up to a critical point, overbeating decrease stability. Foam formation is delayed when the whites are below room temperature. Addition of other ingredients: Salt ± reduce stability Sugar ± delay foam formation, fine texture & more surface area, stabilized with protein Acid ± added early, reducing pH, delay foam formation
a. b. c.
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The temperature of the white influence volume Surface tension is greater in white just removed from the refrigerator Large amount of thin white, the foam form quickly and reaches a large volume But volume reduce when beating is extend Thick white requires more beating to reach the desire endpoints, but the foam achieved holds its volume well Type of beater use; wire whisk, hand beater, electric mixture. Extend of beating influence volume Added ingredients; acid, sugar, salt, water
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Egg white foams containing sugar The quantity of sugar classified as soft or hard meringues. Soft meringues; egg white foam containing about 25g of sugar per egg white. Topping on cream pies. Hard meringues; egg white foam containing 50g of sugar per egg white. Baked to a dry, brittle cookies, dessert shell.
3 type of cake
i. ii. iii.
Angel food Sponge Chiffon
The formation of high quality egg white foams is critical to the final product Egg yolk foam is an important component of sponge cake
Ingredients: cake flour, sugar, egg white & cream of tartar. All purpose flour; volume is smaller, texture more compact, cake may be less tender. (overcome by increase sugar) Cream of tartar; to stabilize egg foams, avoid yellowish tint when pH is higher Sugar; helps to stabilize, finer texture, Quality or temperature of egg white; fresh - larger volume, room temp- max volume
Oven temperature; volume greatest when baked at 218C. Higher temperature the volume is reduce. Between 177 to 218C volume increase constantly Beating; uderbeating-smaller volume