FOOD ADDITIVES

HTF573

OUTLINE
‡ Overview ‡ Rationale ‡ Intentional additives
± Functions ± Examples ± Manufacturing application ± Safety

Overview
‡ Food additives; substance added in relatively small amounts to impart or improve desirable qualities or suppress undesirable one. ‡ Food protection committee:
± A substance or a mixture of substances other than a basic foodstuff, which is present in a food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage or packaging.

‡ FDA ± any substance, the intended use of which result may reasonable be expected to result, directly or indirectly, in its becoming component of or otherwise affecting the characteristic of any food (including any substance intended for use in producing, manufacturing, packing, processing, preparing, treating, transporting or holding of food)

Rationale
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To enhance nutritive value To improve flavor, color & texture To extend the shelf life To control pH For leavening For bleaching & maturing To ease manufacturing problems

‡ The use of additives is accepted by the FDA only if the additive:
i. Perform a useful function ii. Does not deceive the customer by obscuring use of low quality ingredients or poor manufacturing iii.Does not reduce the nutritive value substantially iv.Does not accomplish the same result that improve manufacturing technique could provide v. Can be measured in the product by a recognized method of analysis.

Intentional additives
Functions:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Anticaking agent, free flow agent Antimicrobial agent Antioxidant Color, coloring adjuncts (color stabilizer) Curing, pickling agent Dough strengtheners Drying agent Emulsifiers, emulsifiers salt Enzymes Firming agent

Intentional additives
Functions:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Flavor enhancer Flavoring agent Flour treating agent (bleaching & maturing agent) Formulation aids (carriers, binders, fillers, plasticizers, film former) Humectants, moisture retention agent Leavening agent Lubricants Nonnutritive sweeteners Nutrient supplements

Intentional additives
Functions:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Oxidizing & reducing agent pH control agent Propellant, aerating agent Stabilizers, thickeners (bodying agent, gelling agent, bulking agent) ‡ Surface active agent (whipping agent, foaming agent) ‡ Surface finishing agent (glazes, polishes, waxes) ‡ Texturizers

Intentional additives
‡ Examples
Additives Acetic acids Alcohol Agar agar Aluminium phosphate Annatto Arabic gum Ascorbic acid Baking powder Baking soda Benzoic acid Functions Acidulant, antimicrobial agent (bacteria & yeast) Solvent Thickener Anticaking Food coloring, used in cheese Stabilizer, thickener, surface finishing Antioxidant, prevent enzymatic browning Leavening Texturizer, pH modification, leavening with acid Anti-microbial agent

Intentional additives
‡ Examples
Additives Benzoyl acetat Black papper BHA BHT Calcium carbonate Carrageenan Cellulose Citric acid Sulfur dioxide Yellow dye 5 Functions Flavoring (fruity) Flavoring Antioxidant Antioxidant Acidity control, leavening Thickeners, stabilizer, emulsifier Thickeners, stabilizer, texturizer Acidifying agent, synergist, preservative, antioxidant Preservative Coloring

Intentional additives
‡ Manufacturing application
± Base on the characteristic of the food ± Requiring modification & suitability of additives ± Both effectiveness & cost ± Alternative additives frequently exist for particular application.

Intentional additives
‡ Safety ± Testing the toxicity: i. Acute test ii. Prolonged test iii. Chronic test

Acute test

Single massive dose administered to 2 species, at least 1 being a non-rodent. This dosage level is lethal to half of the test animal. Survivors are studied for 7 days

Prolonged test 3 different doses administered daily to 2 species for a minimum 3 months. The control group & 3 test group usually have at least 10 males & 10 females each. Weekly physical examination are conducted throughout the test period, which is followed by complete autopsies& histologic study of organ Chronic test Same testing as for prolonged test, but the time frame is at least a year and often at lest 1 ½ years. The number of animals tested is 3 or 4 times greater. Some additives are tested for possible effects on reproduction & include a three generation study.