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‡ Component
‡ Processing
‡ Physical & chemical effect of milk

‡ Whole cow¶s milk contain:


‡ Composition vary depending on several factors:

Ł Breed
Ł Age
Ł Stage of lactation
Ł Season of the year
Ł Time of milking ad physiological condition of cow

‡ Lipids
Ł Contain phospholipids, carotenoid pigments,
sterols & fat soluble vitamin
Ł Fatty acids found in triglycerides molecules; chain
range between 4-26
Ł The triglycerides containing fatty acids are
dispersed in milk in the form of fat globules

‡ Carbohydrate
Ł A cup of milk contains 11 to 12 g of carbohydrate
Ł Lactose difficult to dissolve & tend to precipitate
at cool temperature
Ł Creating a textural problem; gritty quality on ice

‡ Proteins
Ł Casein
~ Collective name for milk proteins precipitated at pH
46; insoluble & form a soft curd
Ł Whey proteins
~ Liquid that drains from the curd of clotted milk;
contains lactose, proteins, water-soluble vitamins &
some mineral

‡ Enzymes
Ł Alkaline phosphate, lipase, protease & xanthine
Ł The resistance to denaturation by heat varies by the
‡ Vitamins & minerals
Ł Riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus
Ł Thiamin, niacin, vitamin A
‡ Flavor
Ł Volatile organic compound; aldehydes, ketones, acids
Ł Determine by treatment of the milk

‡ Pasteurization
Ł Heat treatment of milk adequate to kill
microorganism that can cause illness
~ Hold methods ± milk is heated to 6C and held 
min before its cooled to 7C
~ HTST methods ± milk is heated to 72C and held
1sec before its cooled to 1C
~ UHT- 1jC for at least 2 sec kill all microorganism
& make possible to store in close sterile container at
room temperature

‡ Homogenization
Ł Mechanical process,
Ł Milks forced through tiny apertures under a
pressure (2 to 2 psi) ,
Ł Break up the fat globules into smaller units (< 2µ
diameter) that do not separate from the milk
Ł This process cause milk to lose its ability to cream,
increase viscosity & whiter appearance
Ł Also less stable to heat, more sensitive to
oxidation, curds form more softer & less
distinctive flavor

‡ Evaporation
Ł Various canned milk are produced by evaporation
of the water
Ł Evaporated milk; sterilized canned milk that has
been concentrated to about half its original
volume by evaporation under partial vacuum
Ł Sweetened condensed milk; canned milk, sugar is
added, evaporation of about half the water and
heat treatment to kill harmful microorganisms
precede the canning process

‡ Drying
Ł milk is dried so it can be stored for an extended
period of time without refrigeration
Ł Reduce the problems of transporting fluid milks
Ł When dried, the milk powder consists of lactose,
fat globule or free, & protein
Ł These component tend to lump together when
rehydrated with water

‡ Fermentation
Ł To produce lactic acid by microorganism
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Ł Buttermilk & yogurt
Ł Undesirable result; ropy in consistency,
unpleasant aroma/flavor, slimy curd to develop,
formation of black color to butter

Ł Can be categorized on the basis fat content:
~ ion fat/fat free
~ Low fat
~ Reduce fat
~ Whole
Ł Excellent sources of most nutrient  vitamin
C and iron
Ł Fermented milk; cultured buttermilk, sweet
acidophilus milk, kefir & Lactaid®

Ł A dairy product
Ł Water in oil emulsion
Ł Containing 1 water & at least j fat
Ł Accomplish through churning to reverse the
colloidal dispersion
Ł Sweet cream is the milk product from which
butter is churned
Ł Coloring are added if the color is not sufficient

Ł Fat content from 1 to 6
Ł Obtain by centrifugation of milk to separate
lighter cream from aqueous portion of the milk
Ł Cultured sour cream;
~  mi holding at 74-j2C to pasteurize the cream &
destabilize some of the protein,
~ Followed by addition of lactic acid-forming bacteria
~ Controlled incubation to generate the acid needed to
form the clot

Ł Required formation of curd and removal of a
considerable amount of water (whey)
Ł Clotting is facilitated with the addition of u  
 to generate lactic acid
Ł Acid precepitation is used to make cottage cheese
& cream cheese
Ł Other cheese, rennin (enzyme from stomach) has
been used

1 2 

6  4
1 Heat the milk to j degrees Then you add
diluted rennet and buttermilk starter
2 After sitting in a warm room (7 to 7
degrees) for eight to ten hours, the cheese
curdles The liquid that is in the pan is the
 Draining the whey
4 Whey
 After draining the whey, wrap the cheese into
the flour sacks and squeeze the cheese to
drain more whey out
6 Final product

Ł By product of cheese manufacturing
Ł Contribute to viscosity & stability of food products
Ł In form of whey protein concentrate (WPC) &
whey protein isolate (WPI) can be effective in
achieving desirable texture properties
Ł WPC useful in promoting water retention in meat
product, promote gel formation

Ł 1 milk, 2 total milk solid,  stabilizer &
2 emulsifier
Ł High fat content contribute to smoothness of
texture & richness of flavor
Ł Composite ice cream, low fat ice cream, sherbet,
mellorine, parevine
Ł Problem; coarse ice crystal & limited overrun



Ł Whey protein precipitate with prolonged heating
Ł The higher the temperature, the faster is the
denaturation of the whey protein
Ł Visual; thin layer of precipitated protein that
collect on the bottom of the pan (milk being
heated), the color & flavor change (non-enzymetic
Ł A severe heat when pH 7 can cause casein to for a



Ł Rennet added in making cheese to hasten curd
Ł Temperature between 1 and 6C is essential to
the action of enzyme
Ł The clot that form is stronger when the pH of the
milk is about j than either more acidic or more



Ł Casein , abundant milk, is least soluble & most
easily precipitated at a pH about 46
Ł When fruit or acidic vegetable (tomatoes) are
included in recipe containing milk; stir & heat for
short time
Ł This technique keep the curdling to an absolute



Ł Also influence the stability of the protein in milk
containing recipes
Ł Salt ion able to interact with electrical charge on
the surface of the milk protein
Ł Concentration between 2 to 6 calcium
chloride cause milk coagulate if the temperature
between 4 to 6C