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Global Climate Change

?ntroduction
Global Temperature
The Greenhouse effect
Chlorofluorocarbons
Global warming
Other green house gasses
Changes in stratospheric ozone
Perspective on Global Temperature
Global Temperature
@ Climatologists have number of different methods
to get data on past global temperatures
@ These include
Historical evidence
Tree rings
Changes in ice volume and sea level
Fossil pollen analysis
Glacial movements
à  
 
   
 
  
    
Global Temperature
@ One of the most fruitful approaches to record global
temperatures involves an observed correlation between
the world¶s ice cover and concentration of the isotope
O18 in seafloor sediments.
@ When water evaporates from the oceans it contains a mix
of two isotopes O16 and O18.
@ O18 being heavier, water vapor containing O18
condenses and falls as precipitation somewhat sooner than
water vapor containing O16.
Global Temperature
@ Thus Precipitation over ocean tends to slightly
richer in O18 than precipitation that must travel
further to reach polar ice sheets.
@ Precipitation that forms glaciers and ice sheets are
relatively depleted of O18.
@ As the world¶s ice increases, it selectively
removes O16 from the hydrological cycle and
concentrates the remaining O18 in the oceans.
Global Temperature
@ Due to this marine organisms that build their shells out of
calcium carbonate in seawater will have higher ratio of
O18 to O16 in their shells when it is cold and more of the
world¶s water is locked up in the glaciers and ice.
@ By dating marine sediments and observing the ratio of the
two oxygen isotopes in their carbonates, a historic
thermometer can be created.
@ By careful analysis of the isotope ratios in the Vostok ice
core( a 2083 m long ice core recovered by the Soviets at
Vostok in East Antarctica)a continuous 160 000 year
temperature record is obtained.
Global Temperature
@ Historical record of global temperature shows a
primary cycle between glacial episodes of about
100 000 years mixed with a periods of 23 000
years and 41 000 years
@ The 100 000 years cycle is accounted with
chnage in shape of earth¶s orbit from elliptical to
circle
@ 23 000 year cycle is associated with the
precession or wobble of earth¶s spin axis
@ 41 000 years cycle is related to eath¶s tilt.
Simple Global Temperature
Models
@ Earth as a Black body
@ This model predicts a global average
temperature of 279K(remarkably close to
288K(15 degree Celsius),actual global
average temperature.
@ Unfortunately this is a coincidence.
Simple radiation balance model
That includes Earth¶s Albedo
@ The fraction of solar radiation that is
reflected is known as w  
 
w 
@ With this model the global average
temperature is 255K!(it has worsened the
situation)
@ What¶s Wrong?
The Green House Effect
@ The surface of earth is 33 degree Celsius
higher than what is predicted.
@ Solar energy is a  
   w
   
@ Energy radiated from Earth¶s surface is

 
  w  ww  
w   
The Green House Effect
@ Most of the long wavelength radiations are
absorbed by green house gases like water vapor,
carbon dioxide,nitrous oxide and methane.
@ These greenhouse gases act as a thermal blanket
around the globe , raising the earth¶s temperature
beyond the equivalent calculated temperature(this
accounts for the 33 degree Celsius )
Greenhouse effect enhancement
and consequences
@ Anthropogenic sources of a number of gases are
enhancing the green house effect resulting in
Global warming
@ Calculations indicate that a rise in sea level of
about ¼ m per degree celsius.
@ A total rise of 1-3m rise is projected by the end
of next century.
@ Two methods are suggested to counter global
warming-  
and 


Carbon dioxide
@ Global temperature is found to have close relation
with presence of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere.
@ 1 ppm of CO2 = 2.12 giga ton CO2

@ At the beginning of 19th century the concentration


of carbon dioxide was around of 280ppm.
@ Present value of carbon dioxide is around 324
ppm.
@ ?f an exponential growth is modeled, the carbon
dioxide level will be 560ppm in 2100!!
Are human activities modifying
the atmosphere?
@ The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2)
has increased by 31% since 1750 .
@ "The atmospheric concentration of methane (CH4) has
increased by 151% since 1750 and continues to increase
@ The atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O) has
increased by 17% since 1750 and continues to increase.
@ Snow cover and ice extent have decreased by about 10%
when compared to 1960.
Chlorofluorocarbons
@ These are molecules that contain
chlorine,fluorine and carbon
@ Their presence in the atmosphere is entirely
due to human activities.
@ These molecules are inert and non water
soluble, so they are not destroyed through
chemical reactions or removed with
precipitation.
Chlorofluorocarbons
@ Most important CFCs are based on one carbon
methane structures, such as
  
  w CFCl3 and
dichlorodifluoromethane CF2Cl2, they are
often referred as   
  w(CFMs)
@ The dupont tradename is also used.
@ Some CFCs contain Hydrogen also, they are
called    
 w (HCFCs)
Chlorofluorocarbons
@ HCFCs have the environmental advantage that
due to hydrogen bond, they are less stable in
the atmosphere, and hence, are less likely to
reach the stratosphere to affect the ozone
layer.
@ When no chlorine is present in the molecule,
they are called  
 w (HFC)
Chlorofluorocarbons
@ HFC are important replacements for CFCs
since their lack of chlorine means they do
not threaten the ozone layer.(but they do
have some potential to affect global
warming)
Chlorofluorocarbons
@ The only removal mechanism is photolysis
by short wavelength solar radiation.
@ This occurs after the molecules drift into
the stratosphere
@ The chlorine freed during this process
destroy stratospheric ozone.
Chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs are mainly used as
@ refrigerants
@ solvents
@ foaming agents
@ aerosol propellants (for products like
deodorants,spray paint)etc.
Global warming and Ozone ±
Depletion impacts of CFCs
@ Fully halogenated CFCs have long
atmospheric lifetimes,contain relatively large
amounts of chlorine, and can absorb strongly
within the 7 to 13 micro meter atmospheric
window
@ Therefore, they have considerable potential
for global warming and ozone depletion.
@ They are 15000 times potent than carbon
dioxide when compared to carbondioxide
Other green house gases
@ Methane
@ Nitrous oxide
@ Ozone
Methane
@ Naturally occurring
@ ?ncreasing due to human activities
@ Significant increase due to food-growing
activities, cattle production
@ ?t is also released during
production,transportation and consumption of
fossils fuels
@ ?t absorbs at about 7.66 micrometer and 25 times
as potent as carbon dioxide in global warming.
Ozone
@ About 90% of Ozone redies in the
stratosphere
@ ?t protects us from UV radiations
@ ?ncrease in the Troposphere ozone can
contribute to raising global temperature
Earth¶s Atmosphere
@  
  d 500 ± 1000 km up to 10,000 km,
@ à  
  d from 80 ± 85 km to 640+
km temperature increasing with height.
@ ?
  d auroras, long distance radiowave
propagation.
@ `

  d 50 km to 80 to 85 km
temperature decreasing with height. Meteors
burn up when entering the atmosphere.
@ j 
  d 7 to 17 km range to about
50 km Temperature increases with height.
Ozone²few ppm (Mainly 15 to 35 km)
@ à 
  d Surface to between 7 km at
the poles and 17 km at equator,
@ Weather variations , vertical mixing
Changes in the Stratospheric
ozone
@ Some of the gases that enchances the greenhouse
effect actually reduce the problem of ozone
depletion !
@ Therefore, the two problems must be considered
together
@ Ozone is continuously created in the stratosphere
by absorption of UV radiation, while it is
continuously being removed by various chemical
reactions that convert it back to molecular
oxygen.
Nitrous Oxide
@ Released into the atmosphere mostly during the
nitrification portion of the nitrogen cycle.
@ Combustion of fossils fuels and nitrogen fertilizer
are the two major human activities that releases
this to the atmosphere
@ ?t has strong absorption bands at 4,5,7,8 and 17
micrometer and it is about 280 times potent as
carbon dioxide in causing global warming.
Ozone layer as protective shield

@ Atomic oxygen is produced by the


photolytic decomposition of molecular
oxygen
O2 + hM O + O
@ Atomic oxygen, in turn, reacts rapidly
with molecular oxygen to form ozone
Ozone layer as protective shield
@ O + O2 + M O3 + M
where M represent a third body (Nitrogen
or oxygen) to carry away the released in
the reaction
Ozone removal by photo dissociation
@ O3 + hM O2 + O
Destruction of Stratospheric
Ozone
@ CFC molecule can be broken by UV radiation,
freeing chlorine that is available to destroy ozone.
@ CCl2F2 + hM Cl + CClF2
@ The chlorine freed acts as catalyst in the ozone
removal process
@ This means it contributes to the reaction but is
unaffected by it.
@ A single chlorine molecule before it returns to the
stratosphere can break down tens of thousands of
ozone molecules.
Destruction of Stratospheric
Ozone
@ X + O3 XO + O2

@ XO + O X + O2

@ O + O3 O2 + O2

@ Where X may be chlorine ,bromine OH or NO


@ Notice that the X radical is releases in the second
and proceeds in further reaction.
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' (  is a unique atmospheric


condition at which the stratospheric
temperature fall below ±90 degree Celsius. At
this temperature the polar stratospheric clouds
are formed. The ice crystals present in these
clouds convert chlorine nitrate to HOCl
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The sun light frees Cl from HOCl by photolysis

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Methane helps to remove ozone destroying


chlorine
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Policy areas that deserve immediate attention
are
1. Adopting an energy policy that encourage
reduction of carbon emission
(a) ?ncrease the energy efficiency
(b) Use Renewable energy technologies
(Solar thermal systems, wind ± electric
systems etc)
2. Developing ?nternational agreements that
control production and emission of damaging
trace gases
(a) Reduction of CFC
(b) Reduction of CO2 emission
3. Supporting efforts to halt deforestation and
encourage reforestation
(a) Financial assistance for developing
countries from developed countries
(b) Environmental tax
(c) Urban reforestation
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