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DEVELOPMENT

EMBRYONIC
PERIOD
FETAL PERIOD
LABOR

KEYWORDS
Keywords

Info

Embryology

The study of development from the fertilized egg


through the 8 week.

Embryonic
period

Stage of development from fertilization (week 1week 8).

Embryo

The developing gametes (week 1-week 8).

Fetal period

The development of gametes from 9 week until


birth.

Fetus

The developing gametes (week 9-birth).

Pregnancy

Events that begins with fertilization, proceeds to


implantation, embryonic development and fetal
development.

Obstetrics

Branch of medicine that deals with the


management of pregnancy, labor and neonatal
period.

Neonatal period The first days after birth.


Prenatal
development

The time from fertilization to birth includes both


embryological and fetal development.

FIRST WEEK OF DEVELOPMENT


Conception and fertilization
Cleavage
Blastocyst formation
Implantation

CONCEPTION AND FERTILIZATION


EVENTS LEADING TO
FERTILIZATION
Sperm binds to receptors
on zona pellucida
Acrosomal reaction
(OPE enzymes digest a slit)
Sperm passes through zona
Fusion of a single sperms
plasma membrane with
oocytes plasma membrane
Cortical reaction
Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube.
(Sperm receptors destroyed
After ejaculation into the vagina sperm swim
in zona)
to meet an egg.
Cervical mucus need for viability and
No more enter
survivability.
Eggs live about 24-48 hrs, so conception only
Sperm nucleus engulfed by
occurs during this
eggs cytoplasm

CLEAVAGE (DIVISION OF CELL)


First step in development
(24 hours
after fertilization).
Converts a single-celled
zygote into
multi-celled embryo by
mitosis.
Each developing cells
called
blastomeres.
The division and
development from
2-cell into morula occurs
in fallopian
tube.
Stages of division:
6 hrs after fertilization 2-cell
48 hours (2 days) 4-cell
52-56 hours 16-cell
Morula compact cell (3 days)
Blastocyst compact cell (5 days)

Early blastocyst and


hatched
blastocyst stage occurs in
the uterus
before implantation.

CLEAVAGE (DIVISION OF CELL)

OOCYTES

FERTILIZED EGG

2-CELL

4-CELL

8-CELL

MORULA

BLASTOCYST

HATCHED BLASTOCYST

BLASTOCYST FORMATION
A-Trophoblast
B-Blastocyst cavity
(Blastocoel)
C-Inner cell mass
(Embryoblast)
Blastocyst
A

B
C

Hatched blastocyst

- After 4th day the number of cells


increases.
- Morula blastocyst hatched blastocyst
- Dev. from Oviducts Uterine cavity
- Uterine milk = a glycogen-rich section from
the glands of endometrium (provides
nutrients to the developing morula).
- Number of cells increase, size of zygote
still same.
- Formation of embryoblast and trophoblast
occurs.
Embryoblast Embryo
Trophoblast Wall, chorionic sac,
placenta

IMPLANTATION
After 5th day

- the blastocyst hatched.


- Enzyme reaction on the
zona
hole
- ready to implant into
uterus
lining.
- remains free before
attaches
because endometrium
still in the
secretory phase.
On the 6-9 days
- implantation occurs
(slowly)
- can occurs on any area
of the
uterus
- starts with the inner
8
cell mass

IMPLANTATION
-Endometrium = DECIDUA

Decidua parietalis

Decidua basalis
Decidua capsularis

Decidua basalis
post&
- btw6-9
thedays
embryo
conception stratum
burrows into
basalis,
endometrium
glycogens and
lipids
Decidua capsularis
- btw the embryo
and uterine
cavity.
Decidua parietalis
- will fused as the
fetus
enlarges,
degenerate and
disappears.

SECOND WEEK OF DEVELOPMENT


Trophoblast
Bilaminar Embryonic Disc
Amnion, Yolk Sac, Sinusoids
Extraembryonic Coelom
Chorion

TROPHOBLAST, B.E.D, AMNION, YOLK


SAC

TROPHOBLAST, B.E.D, AMNION, YOLK


SAC TROPOBLAST
- 2 layers
synctiotrophoblast
cytotrophoblast
- becomes chorion membrane
- secrete hCG
BILAMINAR EMBRYONIC DISC
- 2 layers hypoblastprimitive endoderm
epiblast
primitive ectoderm
- develop small cavity and
enlarged to form
amniotic cavity.
AMNION / AMNIOTIC FLUID
- single layer of squamous cells
- fluid derived from the
maternal blood.
- shock absorber, fetal
temperature,
prevent fetal drying and skin
adhesions.
- will rupture during birth.
YOLK SAC
- Develop from exocoelomic

SINUSOIDS, E.COELOM, CHORION


SINUSOIDS
- Dilation of endometrial
capillaries around
the developing embryo
maternal
sinusoids.
- Fused of lacunae lacunar
networks.
- maternal blood flows and
secretion
- disposal sites for embryos
waste.
EXTRAEMBRYONIC COELOM
- develop after 12th day
- mesodermal cells are derived
from yolk
sac.
- develop from the fused
extraembryonic
mesoderm (larger cavity)
CHORION
- Extraembryonic mesoderm +
trophoblast

THIRD WEEK OF DEVELOPMENT


Gastrulation
Neurulation
Somites
Intraembryonic Coelom
Cardiovascular System
Chorionic Villi and Placenta

GASTRULATION
15 days after fertilization

Bilaminar disc trilaminar


disc
3 primary germ layers:
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm
involves reorganization of
cells from
epiblast.
Invagination epiblast
move inward
Endoderm epithelial
lining of the
gastrointestinal tract,
respiratory
tract and
other
organs.
Ectoderm epidermis of

NEURULATION
Is the developmental process of
neural plate, neural folds and
neural tube .
The notochord induces
ectodermal cells to
form neural plate.
The lateral edges of the neural
plate become more elevated and
form neural fold
The depressed midregion is
called neural groove.
Fused of neural folds and neural
plate changed into neural tube.
After 4 weeks, neural tube will
develop into primary brain
vesicles:
forebrain (prosencephalon)
midbrain (mesencephalon)
hindbrain
(rhombencephalon)
After 5 weeks, prosencephalon

NEURULATION

NEURULATION
After 4 weeks, neural tube
will develop into primary
brain vesicles:
forebrain
(prosencephalon)
midbrain
(mesencephalon)
hindbrain
(rhombencephalon)
After 5 weeks,
prosencephalon will develop
into secondary brain
vesicles:
telecephalon
diencephalon
Rhombencephalon
metencephalon
mylencephalon

PLACENTATION
Is the process of forming the
placenta.
Functions:
as the site of exchange of
nutrients and
wastes between mother and
fetus.
hormones production
(pregnancy)
protective barrier (microbe,
viruses)
store nutrients for fetal
development
Both contribute :
trophoblast from embryo
endometrial tissue from
mother
Not called placenta until 4th
month
Umbilical cord
connection between the

PLACENTATION

Embryonic
blood
circulates
within
chorionic
villi, close
to but not
mixing with
mothers
blood
Nutrien
ts to
baby
Wastes
to mom
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The Placental Barrier


Sugars, fats and oxygen diffuse from mothers blood
to fetus
Urea and CO2 diffuse from fetus to mother
Maternal antibodies actively transported across
placenta
Some resistance to disease (passive immunity)
Most bacteria are blocked
Many viruses can pass including rubella, chickenpox,
sometimes HIV
Many drugs and toxins pass including alcohol, heroin,
mercury
Placental secretion of hormones
Progesterone and HCG (human chorionic
gonadotropin, the hormone tested for pregnancy):
maintain the uterus
Estrogens and CRH (corticotropin releasing
hormone): promote labor

FOURTH WEEK OF DEVELOPMENT


Organogenesis
Embryonic folding
FIFTH-EIGHT WEEK OF
DEVELOPMENT
Brain and head development
Heart, Regions of limbs
FETAL PERIOD
9-38 weeks

HORMONES OF PREGNANCY
No

Hormones

Functions/Info

Progesterone and
estrogens

maintain the lining of the uterus during


pregnancy.
prepare the mammary glands to secrete milk.
protect corpus luteum from degeneration.

Human Chorionic
Gonadotrophin
(hCG)

stimulates corpus luteum to produce


progesterone and estrogens
Prevent menstruation during implantation

Relaxin

Increase flexibility of pubic symphysis and


ligaments
Helps dilate the uterine cervix during labor.

Human chorionic
somatomammotro
pin (hCS)

helps to prepare the mammary glands for


lactation.
enhance maternal growth by increasing protein
synthesis
regulate certain aspects of metabolism in both
mother and fetus.

Corticotropinreleasing hormone
(CRH)

establish the timing of birth.


increase the secretion of cortisol.

LABOR / PARTURITION
Gestational period: averages 266 days
(this is time post conception; 280
days post LMP)
Parturition: the act of giving birth
3 stages of labor:
1.Dilation:
-6-12h (or more in first child);
begins with regular
uterine contractions and ends with
full dilation of
cervix (10cm)
2.Expulsion:
-full dilation to delivery minutes

Childbirt
LABOR / PARTURITION
h

Dilation of cervix; head enters true pelvis

Expulsion: head first safest as is largest part

Delivery of the placenta


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Late dilation with head rotation to AP position

Childbirt
LABOR / PARTURITION
h

BREECH DELIVERY
The fetal lower limb are presented to the birth canal rather
than normal cephalic (head-first) position (presentation).
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