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Increasing Communications Quality of LTE

System Using OFDM Techniques
Executor :Khairullah Ali Kamil
Supervisor : Professor Loshakov V.A.


Mobile Generations
Mobile communication has become the most important requirements
of global societies. In the last century, technology has evolved from
being expensive to a small number of individuals available to and
affordable for the vast majority of the population of the world.
Mobile generations started from 0G to 4G :Zero generation of Mobile phones In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of
mobile telephones was introduced.
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS)/ First Generation, (1972-

1989), It was the Analog mobile phone standard, first generation

cellular technology that uses separate frequencies.
Second Generation (1990), The second generation (2G) of the wireless

mobile network was based on low-band digital data signaling. The

most popular 2G wireless technology is known as Global Systems for
Mobile Communications (GSM). GSM systems.
Second Generation 2G+ / (2.5G & 2.75G) W.L. Networks (1990 - 2000),
2.5G: General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) , 2.75G: Enhanced Data
rate for Global Evolution (EDGE).

Mobile Generations
Third Generation (3G) Wireless Networks (2000-2011 STILL),

One of the most important aspects of 3G wireless technologies

is its ability to unify existing cellular standards, such as CDMA,
GSM, and TDMA, less than one umbrella. The following three air
interface modes accomplish this result: wideband CDMA,
CDMA2000 and the Universal Wireless Communication (UWC136) interfaces, 3G is the third-generation technology also
known as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System).
Fourth Generation (2011 )4G promises Economic deployment of

systems with optimized radio interfaces among macro cells,

micro cells, indoor, hot spots and broadcast networks, and
promises to accommodate mixed-mode multi-standard services,
and to employ any future services. LTE-Advanced will be an
increase of the maximum transmission bandwidth beyond 20
MHz, perhaps up to as high as 100 MHz or even beyond.

Comparisons between 2.5, 2.75, 3

and 4G

landscapes of mobile radio systems

Whats mean Long Term Evolution ?

The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard represents
a major advance in cellular technology. LTE is designed to meet
carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as
high-capacity voice support well into the next decade. LTE is well
positioned to meet the requirements of next-generation mobile
networks. It will enable operators to offer high performance,
mass-market mobile broadband services, through a combination
of high bit-rates and system throughput in both the uplink and
downlink with low latency.
Background :The work towards LTE standardization started in
November 2004 in a 3GPP Radio Access Network (RAN) Evolution
Workshop in Toronto, Canada. As a result a study item was
created for developing a framework and defining the targets for
evolution of 3GPP radio access technology.
The first LTE release in 3GPP standards and the one studied in
this thesis is Release 8. According to International
Telecommunications Union (ITU), LTE did not originally satisfy the
requirements set for a 4G technology. ITU considered that
Release 10, namely LTE-Advanced, would be the first 3GPP

3 GPP REALESES Parameters

Features of Long Term Evolution

Long Term Evolution offers the following features: Up to 100 Mbps

(Downlink) , Up to 50 Mbps (Uplink) , Simplified Architecture Advanced MIMO
Spatial Antenna Technology , Open Interfaces , Flexible ,Frequency (FDD/TDD)
, All IP Backbone and OFDMA subdivides the available bandwidth for
signal transmission into a multitude of narrowband subcarriers.
Purpose of OFDMA :- Increasing performance communication
systems .
Advantages and disadvantages in OFDMA
Advantages of OFDMA:
Utilization of different spectrum bandwidths without changing basic
system parameters or equipment design.
Low complexity of receivers
Disadvantages of OFDMA
Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of an OFDM signal is relatively

Technologies Associated with LTE

Compare Between LTE & WiMax
WiMAX is a short name for Worldwide Interoperability of
Microwave Access. WiMAX is described in IEEE 802.16 Wireless
Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) standard. WiMAX is an
emerging technology that provides high-speed mobile data and
telecommunication services.
Similarities between WiMax and LTE: Both expect speeds to be in the 100 Mbps range.
Both use OFDM, OFDM will be used in WiMax, but a technology
called SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple
Access) will be used in LTE. SC-FDMA is theoretically designed to
work more efficiently with lower-power end-user devices than
Both have Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna
technology. which means that information, is sent over two or
more antennas from a single cell site to improve reception. In
tough transmission locations, such as a dense downtown area,
MIMO could be a relatively inexpensive means of improving

Compare Between LTE & WiMax


Orthogonal Frequency Division

Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

is a
technology that dates back to the 1960s. It was
considered for 3G systems in the mid-1990s before being
determined too immature. Developments in electronics
and signal processing since that time has made OFDM
amateur technology widely used in other access systems
like 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and 802.16 (WiMAX) and broadcast
systems (Digital Audio/Video Broadcast DAB/DVB).
(OFDM) is a modulation technique based on the idea of
splitting the channel into a define amount N of
narrowband and independent sub-channels that are
supposed to have a flat frequency response.(OFDM)
including the use of OFDM in various current standards
that demand high data rates and very low error rates
when transmitting over wireless multipath channels.
Challenges to high data rate and low error rate
characteristics of wireless communication channels.
The design of the LTE physical layer (PHY) is heavily
by the requirements for high peak

Adaptive modulation in frequency domain (a) QAM16

(b) QAM64


Downlink OFDM and Uplink SC-FDMA in



Transmitter and receiver structure of OFDMA

Transmitter and receiver structure of SCFDMA


In the First topic is (Mobile Generation) Techniques are often sprate

into generations in mobile communications, with 1G being analog

mobile radio systems of the 1980s, 2G mobile systems, the first digital,
and 3G systems to deal with the first mobile broadband data. Is often
called the long-term evolution (LTE) 3.9G. A second version of LTE was
developed in Release 9, and Release 10 continues the progression with
the beginning of the next significant step known as LTE-Advanced 4G.
In the Second topic is (LTE) corresponds to
introduction the general LTE background and the comparison between
LTE and other technology (WiMAX) Similarities and Different. The overall
intent is to provide an extremely high-performance radio-access
technology that offers full vehicular speed mobility and that can readily
coexist with HSPA and earlier networks. Because of scalable bandwidth,
operators will be able to easily migrate their networks and users from
HSPA to LTE over time.
In Third topic is principles of first stage of LTE Technology using
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ofdm) Technology . Discuss
OFDM theory in LTE Communications: Theory and Applications of OFDM
and discuses how LTE uses OFDMA on the downlink and use SC-FDMA on
the uplink, as advantage which is well suited to achieve high peak data
rates in high spectrum bandwidth and discuses Scheduling approaches
in the frequency domain can also minimize interference, thereby
boosting spectral efficiency.

Thanks for listening