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Amoco Houston Division

DGTS January 12, 1977

This PowerPoint version of the material, was compiled by Greg Partyka (October 2006)

Quiz

Given:

Seismic section whitened between 5Hz and 60Hz

11ms measured two-way interval time

18,000ft/sec interval velocity of bed

99ft

49.5ft

18ft

any one of the above

none of the above

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

Quiz

Define the ormsby wavelet (f1-f2-f3-f4) that has the same resolving

power as a 65Hz Ricker wavelet.

24-26-99-101

11-13-88-110

14-18-31-125

all of the above

roll on your own: __-__-__-__

f2

amplitude

f1

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

f3

f4

frequency

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Summary

Temporal Resolution:

The time interval between the wavelets primary lobe inflection

points

The minimum two-way time through a thinning bed as measured

on a seismic trace.

temporal resolution.

separated from variations in side-lobe tuning effects.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

As interval times through a thinning bed becomes less and less, how

accurately do the measured times represent the actual, vertical twoway travel times through the bed?

1. How thin can a bed become and still be resolvable? In other

words, when is the measured interval time essentially the

same as the true interval time?

1. What are the errors between the true interval times and the

measured interval times through thick beds?

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

Why Zero-Phase?

The use of wavelets that are not zero-phase greatly complicates the

analysis of seismic resolution.

containing zero-phase wavelets will have seismic interfaces located in

general at the centers of the peaks and troughs of the trace

(neglecting tuning effects and noise).

A Historical Perspective

many investigators to be definitive, new concepts and results will be

examined carefully and compared with those in the literature.

We begin our study in the field of optics by examining the Rayleigh

criterion of resolution,

We consider next a resolution criterion developed by Ricker

(1953), and finally

We consider the criterion established by Widess in 1957 and

published again in Geophysics in 1973.

parameters that can be measured on the wavelet that is convolved

with the reflectivity sequence.

Rayleighs Criterion

narrow slit may seem far removed from seismic resolution.

It establishes a criterion of resolution which is often cited by many

investigators in regard to seismic wavelets.

Two wavelets are resolved when their separation is greater-than or

equal-to the peak-to-trough time of the convolving wavelet.

is a good reference.

Rayleighs Criterion

sin2x

x2

b

When applied to wavelets other than sin2x / x2, the dimple-to-dimple

amplitude ratios may vary.

0.81A

Rickers Criterion

wavelet, reaches the limit of resolvability when the bed becomes so

thin as to cause a flat spot to appear in place of the two maxima.

to zero the second derivative of the convolving wavelet.

Wavelet Contraction, Wavelet Expansion, and the Control of Seismic

Regulation by Norman Ricker (1953) Geophysics, Vol. 18, No. 4, p.

769-792.

Rickers Criterion

equal amplitudes but opposite polarities, becomes thinner and thinner,

the complex waveform produced by convolving the spike pair with a

wavelet looks more and more like the time derivative of the convolving

wavelet.

How Thin is a Thin Bed by M. B. Widess (1973) Geophysics, Vol. 38,

No. 6, P. 1176-1180.

Rickers Criterion

Y(f) =

f

f1

2

2

e1 - (f/f )

1

b

Flat

d2(Kt)

A a7R

b

Rayleighs Criterion

dt

= 0

Rickers Criterion

by Norman Ricker (1953) Geophysics, Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 769-792.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

across it does not differ significantly from the derivative of the

convolving wavelet itself.

This definition is useful for thin bed detectability studies, but causes

problems when it comes to thin bed resolvability considerations.

At the bed thickness Widess first considers a bed to become a thin

bed, i.e., when the bed thickness is about /8; the apparent thickness

is actually /4.6 which is the peak-to-trough time of the derivative of a

Ricker wavelet.

J. Farr in his paper: How High is High Resolution (1976) SEG

Preprint, states that a bed as thin as /40 may be detectable. It should

be understood, however, that the apparent thickness remains at /4.6.

derivative of the incident wavelet as the bed thins to zero thickness.

Widess states, A thin bed is one whose thickness is less than about

/8 where is the predominant wavelength

Comment: The minimum time directly measurable through a thin

bed may be calculated from d2(Kt) / dt2 = 0

For a Ricker wavelet then, a thin bed is one which has a thickness

less than /4.6

How Thin is a Thin Bed by M. B. Widess (1973) Geophysics, Vol. 38, No. 6, P. 1176-1180.

(Kt)

Sonic Log

Sonic Log

Thick Bed

Thin Bed

= Predominant Period

1 / = Predominant Frequency. Not to be confused with Peak frequency.

bed resolvability that ties together both Rickers and Widess criteria

and relates both of them to parameters that can be measured on the

incident wavelet itself.

concept of detectability, the term Temporal Resolution (TR) will be

used to denote resolvability.

Temporal Resolution

defined as the time interval between the wavelets primary lobe

inflection points. This time may be derived from the equation:

d2(Kt)/dt2 = 0

measured directly on a seismic trace. A wavelets inflection points are

found by setting equal to zero the second derivative of the wavelet

itself.

frequency which is defined in the literature as the reciprocal of the

wavelets breadth (Tb).

TR

amplitude

Tb

peak frequency:

temporal resolution:

wavelet breadth:

peak-to-trough:

relationship of Tb to TR:

f1

frequency

f1

TR

Tb

Tb / 2

TR

= 1 / (3.0)f1

= 1 / (1.3)f1

= 1 / (2.6)f1

= 0.43Tb = 0.86Tb / 2

sinc wavelet.

This wavelet represents the output of an amplitude whitening process

such as programs DAFD and WELCON.

Temporal Resolution

TR

Tb / 2

60

50

40

30

20

8 Hz 64 Hz Sinc Wavelet

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

frequency in order to establish a similarity to the analysis of the Ricker

wavelet.

has frequencies extending to zero Hertz; nevertheless, it is instructive

to study this wavelet.

frequency, and results can be used in the discussion of the bandpass

sinc wavelet.

TR

amplitude

Kt =

T0

Tb

fm

f4

2 f4 sin (2 f4 t)

(2 f4 t)

frequency

temporal resolution:

wavelet breadth:

peak-to-trough:

1st zero crossings:

TR

Tb

Tb / 2

T0

= 1 / (3.0)fm

= 1 / (1.4)fm

= 1 / (2.8) fm

= 1 / 2fm

= 1 / (1.5)f4

= 1 / (0.7)f4

= 1 / (1.4)f4

= 1 / f4

relationship of Tb to TR

TR

= 0.47Tb

The band-pass sinc wavelet is the difference between two (f1 and f4)

sinc functions.

the wavelet for band-pass ratios of 2-octaves and greater.

only the highest, frequency of a wavelet leads to some very useful

and quite accurate approximations.

Non-Binary Complexity

second spike of a set of alternate polarity spike pairs is varied.

temporal resolution decreases slightly and in fact approaches the

peak-to-trough time of the convolving wavelet.

trough of the positive spike wavelet on the center lobe of the negative

spike wavelet.

resolution, is enlarged. Application of these temporal resolution

concepts is discussed in the attached report on Designing Optimum

Zero-Phase Wavelets.

Kt =

f4 sinc

f1 sinc

f1

(2 f4 t)

amplitude

band-pass sinc

f4

2 f4 sin (2 f4 t)

TR

T0

2 f1 sin (2 f1 t)

(2 f1 t)

fm = (f1 + f4) / 2

f1

Tb

fm

f4

frequency

temporal resolution:

wavelet breadth:

peak-to-trough:

1st zero crossings:

TR

Tb

Tb / 2

T0

= 1 / (1.5)f4

= 1 / (0.7)f4

= 1 / (1.4)f4

= 1 / (2fm)

; 2 octaves (where f4 / f1 .ge. 4)

; 2 octaves (where f4 / f1 .ge. 4)

; all octaves

relationship of Tb to TR:

TR

= 0.47Tb = 0.93Tb / 2

T

sinc and

Ricker

wavelets

are

when

f1 (peak

frequency

Ricker)

= f4 (sinc) / 2G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Seismic

R ofResolution

of Zero-Phase

Wavelets,

R. S. Kallweit

andequal

L. C. Wood,

Amoco Houston

Division

DGTS, January 12,

1977

30

peak-to-trough separation (ms)

30

20

10

TR

0

10

264 Hz Sinc

(5 octaves)

20

30

20

10

TR

0

1664 Hz Sinc

(2 octaves)

10

20

30

of 2 octaves and greater bandwidths having the same f max

TR = 1 / (1.5)fmax

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

2.0

TR for all band-pass sinc wavelets

1.9

TR = 1 / C f4

1.8

1.7

1/2 ms dTR for 64 Hz f4

TR 30-64 sinc = TR 4-64 sinc within 1/2 ms

1.6

1.51

1.5

1.4

2

1

4

2

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

4

f 4 / f1

octaves

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

30

1.0

25

1.51

1.0

-1.0

1.0

-0.8

20

convolved with

alternate polarity spike pairs

of unequal amplitude

-0.6

15

10

TR

10

15

20

25

30

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

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