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Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets

R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood


Amoco Houston Division
DGTS January 12, 1977

This PowerPoint version of the material, was compiled by Greg Partyka (October 2006)

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Quiz

Given:
Seismic section whitened between 5Hz and 60Hz
11ms measured two-way interval time
18,000ft/sec interval velocity of bed

Find the thickness of a carbonate encased in shale:


99ft
49.5ft
18ft
any one of the above
none of the above

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Quiz

Define the ormsby wavelet (f1-f2-f3-f4) that has the same resolving
power as a 65Hz Ricker wavelet.
24-26-99-101
11-13-88-110
14-18-31-125
all of the above
roll on your own: __-__-__-__
f2

amplitude

f1
Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

f3

f4

frequency
G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Summary

Temporal Resolution:
The time interval between the wavelets primary lobe inflection
points
The minimum two-way time through a thinning bed as measured
on a seismic trace.

Different types of zero-phase wavelets may be compared in terms of


temporal resolution.

The ability of zero-phase wavelets to resolve thin beds can be


separated from variations in side-lobe tuning effects.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

What are the Limits of Temporal Resolution?

As interval times through a thinning bed becomes less and less, how
accurately do the measured times represent the actual, vertical twoway travel times through the bed?

This questions may be further divided into two related questions:


1. How thin can a bed become and still be resolvable? In other
words, when is the measured interval time essentially the
same as the true interval time?
1. What are the errors between the true interval times and the
measured interval times through thick beds?

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Why Zero-Phase?

The use of wavelets that are not zero-phase greatly complicates the
analysis of seismic resolution.

The use of zero-phase wavelets simplifies resolution because traces


containing zero-phase wavelets will have seismic interfaces located in
general at the centers of the peaks and troughs of the trace
(neglecting tuning effects and noise).

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

A Historical Perspective

Since past work on the subject of seismic resolution is considered by


many investigators to be definitive, new concepts and results will be
examined carefully and compared with those in the literature.
We begin our study in the field of optics by examining the Rayleigh
criterion of resolution,
We consider next a resolution criterion developed by Ricker
(1953), and finally
We consider the criterion established by Widess in 1957 and
published again in Geophysics in 1973.

In each case, the theoretical limits of resolution will be related to


parameters that can be measured on the wavelet that is convolved
with the reflectivity sequence.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Rayleighs Criterion

Optical diffraction patterns caused by light transmitting through a


narrow slit may seem far removed from seismic resolution.
It establishes a criterion of resolution which is often cited by many
investigators in regard to seismic wavelets.

Rayleighs work relates to resolution of two diffraction patterns.


Two wavelets are resolved when their separation is greater-than or
equal-to the peak-to-trough time of the convolving wavelet.

The text book Fundamentals of Optics by Jenkins and White (1957)


is a good reference.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Rayleighs Criterion

sin2x
x2
b

Rayleigh chose to keep the mathematical relationships involved simple.


When applied to wavelets other than sin2x / x2, the dimple-to-dimple
amplitude ratios may vary.

0.81A

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Rickers Criterion

A bed, represented by two upright polarity spikes convolved with a


wavelet, reaches the limit of resolvability when the bed becomes so
thin as to cause a flat spot to appear in place of the two maxima.

This occurs a a spike separation interval that can be derived equating


to zero the second derivative of the convolving wavelet.

This observation was made first by Ricker in his classic paper


Wavelet Contraction, Wavelet Expansion, and the Control of Seismic
Regulation by Norman Ricker (1953) Geophysics, Vol. 18, No. 4, p.
769-792.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Rickers Criterion

Ricker also recognized that as a bed, represented by two spikes of


equal amplitudes but opposite polarities, becomes thinner and thinner,
the complex waveform produced by convolving the spike pair with a
wavelet looks more and more like the time derivative of the convolving
wavelet.

It was left to Widess to expand on this concept further in his paper:


How Thin is a Thin Bed by M. B. Widess (1973) Geophysics, Vol. 38,
No. 6, P. 1176-1180.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Rickers Criterion

Relates to resolution of two Ricker Wavelets.

Y(f) =

f
f1

2
2

e1 - (f/f )
1

b
Flat

d2(Kt)

A a7R
b

Rayleighs Criterion

dt

= 0

Rickers Criterion

Wavelet Contraction, Wavelet Expansion, and the Control of Seismic Regulation


by Norman Ricker (1953) Geophysics, Vol. 18, No. 4, p. 769-792.
Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

The Widess Criterion

Widess considered a thin bed as one where the complex waveform


across it does not differ significantly from the derivative of the
convolving wavelet itself.
This definition is useful for thin bed detectability studies, but causes
problems when it comes to thin bed resolvability considerations.
At the bed thickness Widess first considers a bed to become a thin
bed, i.e., when the bed thickness is about /8; the apparent thickness
is actually /4.6 which is the peak-to-trough time of the derivative of a
Ricker wavelet.
J. Farr in his paper: How High is High Resolution (1976) SEG
Preprint, states that a bed as thin as /40 may be detectable. It should
be understood, however, that the apparent thickness remains at /4.6.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

The Widess Criterion

The complex waveform across a thin bed approaches the time


derivative of the incident wavelet as the bed thins to zero thickness.
Widess states, A thin bed is one whose thickness is less than about
/8 where is the predominant wavelength
Comment: The minimum time directly measurable through a thin
bed may be calculated from d2(Kt) / dt2 = 0
For a Ricker wavelet then, a thin bed is one which has a thickness
less than /4.6

How Thin is a Thin Bed by M. B. Widess (1973) Geophysics, Vol. 38, No. 6, P. 1176-1180.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

(Kt)

Sonic Log

Sonic Log

The Widess Criterion

Thick Bed

Thin Bed

= Predominant Period
1 / = Predominant Frequency. Not to be confused with Peak frequency.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Kallweit and Wood Proposition

We now propose a definition of seismic resolution, in context of thin


bed resolvability that ties together both Rickers and Widess criteria
and relates both of them to parameters that can be measured on the
incident wavelet itself.

In order to separate the concept of resolvability from the related


concept of detectability, the term Temporal Resolution (TR) will be
used to denote resolvability.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution

The term temporal resolution of a zero-phase wavelet may be


defined as the time interval between the wavelets primary lobe
inflection points. This time may be derived from the equation:
d2(Kt)/dt2 = 0

This is the minimum two-way time through a thinning bed as


measured directly on a seismic trace. A wavelets inflection points are
found by setting equal to zero the second derivative of the wavelet
itself.

Peak frequency (f1)is not to be confused with the term predominant


frequency which is defined in the literature as the reciprocal of the
wavelets breadth (Tb).

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

TR

amplitude

Temporal Resolution (TR) of the Ricker Wavelet

Tb

peak frequency:
temporal resolution:
wavelet breadth:
peak-to-trough:
relationship of Tb to TR:

Kt = [ 1 2(f1 t)2 ] e -(f t)

f1

frequency

f1
TR
Tb
Tb / 2
TR

= 1 / (3.0)f1
= 1 / (1.3)f1
= 1 / (2.6)f1
= 0.43Tb = 0.86Tb / 2

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution in Relation to a Sinc Wavelet

Let us now discuss temporal resolution in relation to the band-pass


sinc wavelet.
This wavelet represents the output of an amplitude whitening process
such as programs DAFD and WELCON.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Peak-to-trough separation (ms) or apparent thickness (ms)

Temporal Resolution

TR

Tb / 2

Peak-to-Trough Time Separation


60

50

Peak Amplitude of Wavelet

40

30

20

8 Hz 64 Hz Sinc Wavelet
10

10

20

30

40

50

60

Model spike separation (ms) or actual thickness (ms)


Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution of the Low-Pass Sinc Wavelet

The low-pass sinc wavelet can be analyzed in terms of its mid


frequency in order to establish a similarity to the analysis of the Ricker
wavelet.

A low-pass sinc wavelet is not realizable in actual practice because it


has frequencies extending to zero Hertz; nevertheless, it is instructive
to study this wavelet.

Temporal resolution is established in terms of the maximum


frequency, and results can be used in the discussion of the bandpass
sinc wavelet.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

TR

amplitude

Temporal Resolution of the Low-Pass Sinc Wavelet

Kt =

T0
Tb

fm

f4

2 f4 sin (2 f4 t)
(2 f4 t)

frequency

temporal resolution:
wavelet breadth:
peak-to-trough:
1st zero crossings:

TR
Tb
Tb / 2
T0

= 1 / (3.0)fm
= 1 / (1.4)fm
= 1 / (2.8) fm
= 1 / 2fm

= 1 / (1.5)f4
= 1 / (0.7)f4
= 1 / (1.4)f4
= 1 / f4

relationship of Tb to TR

TR

= 0.47Tb

= 0.93Tb /G.2Partyka (Oct 06)

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

Temporal Resolution (TR) of the Bandpass Sinc Wavelet

The band-pass sinc wavelet is the difference between two (f1 and f4)
sinc functions.

the f1 sinc function has negligible effect on the temporal resolution of


the wavelet for band-pass ratios of 2-octaves and greater.

The resulting ability to relate temporal resolution to the highest, and


only the highest, frequency of a wavelet leads to some very useful
and quite accurate approximations.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Non-Binary Complexity

What is the effect on temporal resolution when the amplitude of the


second spike of a set of alternate polarity spike pairs is varied.
temporal resolution decreases slightly and in fact approaches the
peak-to-trough time of the convolving wavelet.

This behaviour is due to the constructive interference of the main


trough of the positive spike wavelet on the center lobe of the negative
spike wavelet.

Note also that the pseudo-thinning pocket just prior to temporal


resolution, is enlarged. Application of these temporal resolution
concepts is discussed in the attached report on Designing Optimum
Zero-Phase Wavelets.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution (TR) of the Bandpass Sinc Wavelet

Kt =

f4 sinc
f1 sinc

f1

(2 f4 t)
amplitude

band-pass sinc

f4

2 f4 sin (2 f4 t)

TR

T0

2 f1 sin (2 f1 t)
(2 f1 t)

fm = (f1 + f4) / 2

f1

Tb

fm

f4

frequency

temporal resolution:
wavelet breadth:
peak-to-trough:
1st zero crossings:

TR
Tb
Tb / 2
T0

= 1 / (1.5)f4
= 1 / (0.7)f4
= 1 / (1.4)f4
= 1 / (2fm)

; 2 octaves (where f4 / f1 .ge. 4)


; 2 octaves (where f4 / f1 .ge. 4)
; 2 octaves (where f4 / f1 .ge. 4)
; all octaves

relationship of Tb to TR:

TR

= 0.47Tb = 0.93Tb / 2

; for sincs .ge. 2 octaves

T
sinc and
Ricker
wavelets
are
when
f1 (peak
frequency
Ricker)
= f4 (sinc) / 2G. Partyka (Oct 06)
Seismic
R ofResolution
of Zero-Phase
Wavelets,
R. S. Kallweit
andequal
L. C. Wood,
Amoco Houston
Division
DGTS, January 12,
1977

Sinc Bandwidth and Temporal Resolution with Constant fmax


30
peak-to-trough separation (ms)

peak-to-trough separation (ms)

30

20

10
TR
0

10

264 Hz Sinc
(5 octaves)
20

spike separation (ms)

30

20

10
TR
0

1664 Hz Sinc
(2 octaves)

10

20

30

spike separation (ms)

Conclusion: Temporal Resolution is the same for all sinc wavelets


of 2 octaves and greater bandwidths having the same f max
TR = 1 / (1.5)fmax
Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution (TR) for All Band-Pass Sinc Wavelets

2.0
TR for all band-pass sinc wavelets
1.9

TR = 1 / C f4

Resolution constant (C)

1.8

1.7
1/2 ms dTR for 64 Hz f4
TR 30-64 sinc = TR 4-64 sinc within 1/2 ms
1.6
1.51
1.5

1.4

2
1

4
2

10

11

12

13

14

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

15

16
4

f 4 / f1
octaves
G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Temporal Resolution (TR) with Spike Pairs of Unequal Amplitude


30
1.0

peak-to-trough separation (ms)

25

1.51

1.0

-1.0

1.0

-0.8

20

16-to-64 Hz 2-octave sinc wavelet


convolved with
alternate polarity spike pairs
of unequal amplitude

-0.6
15

10

TR

10

15

20

25

30

spike separation (ms)


Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)

Next?

Application of these temporal resolution concepts.

Designing Optimum Zero-Phase Wavelets.

Seismic Resolution of Zero-Phase Wavelets, R. S. Kallweit and L. C. Wood, Amoco Houston Division DGTS, January 12, 1977

G. Partyka (Oct 06)