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its parameters

Md Shabbir Hasan

Dept. of ECE

Institute of Science and Technology

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

guided waves

present in a waveguide,

feeder cable or transmission line into

radiating waves travelling in free space, or

vice versa.

References

oNear field or Fresnel region: The region

within the radius of the smallest sphere

which completely encloses the antenna is

called Fresnel region.

In sitting an antenna ,its crucial to keep

objects out of the near field region to avoid

coupling the currents in the antenna with

objects.

oFar

region beyond Fresnel region is called

This is made by Md.Shabbir Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

Fraunhofer region

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

the far-field radiation from the antenna. More

specifically, it is a plot of the power radiated

from an antenna per unit solid angle, or its

radiation intensity U [watts per unit solid

angle]. This is arrived at by simply multiplying

the power density at a given distance by the

square of the distance r, where the power

density S [watts per square metre] is given by

the magnitude of the time-averaged Poynting

vector:

U=r^S

This is made by Md.Shabbir

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

direction

is defined by the ratio of radiation intensity of

antenna in direction to the mean radiation

intensity in all directions.

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

two parts, a radiation resistance Rr and a loss resistance

Rl. The power dissipated in the radiation resistance is the

power actually radiated by the antenna, and the loss

resistance is power lost within the antenna itself. This may

be due to losses in either the conducting or the dielectric

parts of the antenna. Radiation efficiency e of the antenna

as e is the ratio of power radiated to the power accepted

by antenna

antenna with high radiation efficiency therefore has high

associated radiation resistance compared with the losses.

The antenna is said to be resonant if its input reactance Xa

=0.

This is made by Md.Shabbir Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

antenna is the ratio of its radiation intensity

to that

of an isotropic antenna radiating the same

total power as accepted by the real antenna.

When

antenna manufacturers specify simply the

gain of an antenna they are usually referring

to the

maximum value of G.

This is made by Md.Shabbir Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

ability to operate over a wide frequency

range. It is often defined as the range over

which the power gain is maintained to within

3dB of its maximum value, or the range over

which the VSWR is no greater than 2:1,

whichever is smaller. The bandwidth is

usually given as a percentage of the nominal

operating frequency. The radiation

pattern of an antenna may change

dramatically outside its specified operating

This is made by Md.Shabbir Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

bandwidth.

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

Reciprocity theorem:

If a voltage is applied to the terminals of an

antenna A and the current measured at the

terminals of another antenna B then an equal

current will be obtained at the terminals of

antenna A if the same voltage is applied to

the terminals of antenna B.

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

Effective Aperture

If an antenna is used to receive a wave with a power density S [W m2], it

will produce a

power in its terminating impedance (usually a receiver input impedance)

of Pr watts. The

constant of proportionality between Pr and S is Ae, the effective aperture

of the antenna in

square metres:

Pr = AeS

For some antennas, such as horn or dish antennas, the aperture has an

obvious physical

interpretation, being almost the same as the physical area of the antenna,

but the concept is

just as valid for all antennas. The effective aperture may often be very

much larger than the

physical area, especially in the case of wire antennas. Note, however, that

the effective

aperture will reduce as the efficiency of an antenna decreases.

The antenna gain G is related to the effective aperture as follows

This is made by Md.Shabbir

G=4pi/ (lamda)2Ae

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

beamwidth is made smaller, as the energy

radiated is concentrated into a smaller solid

angle

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

1.Radiation Pattern

2.Directivity

3.Radiation Resistance and Efficiency

4.Power Gain

5.Bandwidth

6.Reciprocity

7.Effective Aperture

8.Beamwidth and Directivity

9.The Friis Formula: Antennas in Free Space

10.Polarisation Matching

between the power received by the

antenna and the power which would be

received by an antenna perfectly matched

to the incident wave

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

Communication Systems

Second Edition Simon R. Saunders and

Alejandro Aragon-Zavala

Hasan ,ECE-827,IST,National

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