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Introduction to welding

Introduction to welding
Overview of joining methods

Mechanical methods

Adhesive bonding
Brazing and Soldering

Screwed fasteners, rivets,

Base metal does not fuse.


Molten filler drawn into close-fit joints by capillary
action (surface tension forces).
Brazing filler melts >450 C, solder <450 C

Welding
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Introduction to welding
Weld

A joint produced by heat or pressure or both


So there is continuity of material.

Filler (if used) has a melting temperature


close to the base material

Introduction to welding
Welding processes
Fusion welding

Welding in the liquid state with no pressure


Union is by molten metal bridging

Solid phase welding

Carried out below the melting point without filler


additions
Pressure often used
Union is often by plastic flow
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Introduction to welding
Basic Requirements of Welding Process
Source of Heat
Chemical Reaction
Electrical - Arc, Resistance, Induction
Mechanical
Protection from Atmosphere
Gas Shielding
Flux
Mechanical Expulsion
Vacuum
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Introduction to welding
Fusion welding heat sources
Electric resistance

Chemical reaction

Electric arc

Power beams

Spot, seam and


projection welding

Oxyfuel gas
welding

Laser
Electron beam

Electroslag

Thermit welding

MMAW
GMAW
GTAW
FCAW
SAW

Introduction to welding
Solid phase welding
Hot processes

Forge welding
Friction welding
Diffusion bonding

Cold processes

Ultrasonic welding
Explosive welding

Introduction to welding
Some arc welding processes

MMAW - manual metal arc welding


SAW - submerged arc welding
GTAW - gas tungsten arc welding (TIG)
GMAW - gas-metal arc welding (MIG, MAG)
FCAW - flux cored arc welding

Introduction to welding
The electric arc
Peak
temperatures
18,000 K

Electric discharge between 2


electrodes through ionised gas

Cathode
drop zone

10 to 2000 amps at 10 to 500 V arc


voltage

Column of ionised gas at high


temperature
Forces stiffen the arc column

Anode
drop zone

Transfer of molten metal from


electrode to work piece

Can have a cleaning action,


breaking up oxides on work piece

Introduction to welding
Arc energy
Q=

ExI
V

Q = arc energy in kJ/mm


E = current in amps
I = arc voltage
V = travel speed in mm/min

Low arc energy

High arc energy

Incomplete fusion
High cooling rate
Unwanted phase transformations
Hydrogen cracking

Low cooling rate


Increased solidification cracking risk
Low ductility and strength
Precipitation of unwanted phases
(corrosion and ductility)

Small weld pool size

Large weld pool size

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Introduction to welding

103 Watts/cm2 melts most metals


106 -107 Watts/cm2 vaporizes most metals
103 to 106 Watts/cm2 typical for fusion welding

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Introduction to welding

Manual Metal Arc Welding


MMAW,
SMAW,
Stick electrode welding
Manual welding
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Introduction to welding

Manual Metal Arc Welding


Heat source - arc between metal and a flux coated
electrode (1.6- 8 mm diameter)
Current 30-400A (depends on electrode size)
AC or DC operation
Power 1 to 12 kW

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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding

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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Minimum equipment

Power source (ac or dc, engine driven or


mains transformer)
Electrode holder and leads

May carry up to 300 amps

Head shield with lens protects face & eyes


Chipping hammer to remove slag
Welding gloves protect hands from arc
radiation, hot material and electric shock

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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Process features

Simple portable equipment


Widely practiced skills
Applicable to wide range of materials, joints,
positions
About 1kg weld deposited per arc-hour
Portable and versatile
Properties can be excellent
Benchmark process
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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Covered electrodes
Core wire

Solid or tubular
2mm to 8mm diameter,
250 to 450mm long

Coating

Extruded as paste, dried


to strengthen
Dipped into slurry and
dried (rare)
Wound with paper or
chord (obsolete)
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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Functions of coating

Slag protects weld pool from oxidation


Gas shielding also protects weld pool
Surface tension (fluxing)
Arc stabilising (ionising)
Alloying and deoxidation
Some ingredients aid manufacture
(binder and extrusion aids)

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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
AWS A5.1 classification

E XXXX - H

Tensile Strength
in KPSI
Useable positions
1=all positions
2=flat + horizontal
4=vertical down

Hydrogen level (HmR)

H = 5 ml / 100g of WM
R = low moisture pick-up

Flux type

20 = Acidic (iron oxide)


10, 11 = Cellulosic
12, 13 = Rutile
24 = Rutile + iron powder
27 = Acidic + iron powder
16 = basic
18, 28 = basic + iron powder

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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Applications

Wide range of welded products:

light structure & Heavy steel structures


Workshop and site
High integrity (nuclear reactors, pressure
equipment)

Ideal where access is difficult construction site, inside vessels,


underwater
Joins a wide range of materials
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Introduction to welding
Manual Metal Arc Welding
Limitations

Low productivity

Low power
Low duty cycle (frequent electrode
changes)

Hydrogen from flux coatings


Electrode live all the time

Arc strike, stray current and electric shock


risks
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Introduction to welding

Submerged arc welding


SAW,
Sub-arc

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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding

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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding

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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding - Features
High productivity

2 to 10 kg/hour
Up to 2m/min

Bulky, expensive and


heavy equipment
Flat and horizontal
positions only
Thicker sections (3mm
and above)
Mostly ferrous materials
(also Ni alloys)
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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding - Equipment
Power source
Welding head and
control box
Welding head travel
Flux recovery system
(optional)
Positioners and
Fixtures

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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding - Consumables

Solid or cored wires


Granular fluxes

Agglomerated, fused or sintered


Alloying activity
Contribution to weld metal chemistry from flux

Basicity
Acid fluxes made from manganese oxide, silica, rutile are
easy to use
Basic fluxes (MgO, CaO, CaF2, Al2O3) provide excellent
toughness welds
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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding - Applications

Long straight welds in heavier material

Vessel longitudinal and circumferential


welds
Flange to web joints of I beams

Flat or horizontal position

Flux has to be supported

Access has to be good


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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding
Process variations

Surfacing and hardfacing

Wire and strip electrodes

Semi-automatic
Multiple electrodes

2 (and more) electrode wires


From one or more power sources

Iron powder additions to groove


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Introduction to welding
Submerged arc welding Tandem arc

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Introduction to welding

Gas shielded arc process


Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG)
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Alternative names GTAW,TIG (Tungsten Inert
Gas), Argonarc
Heat source is an electric
arc between a nonconsumable electrode and
the workpiece
Filler metal is not added or
is added independently
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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten arc welding

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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Heat source - arc between a tungsten tip and the parent
metal
30-400A, AC or DC
10-20V
0.3-8kW
Inert gas shielding
Consumable filler rod can be used (1 to 4mm diameter)
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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - Process features
Excellent control

Stable arc at low power (80A at 11V)


Independently added filler
Ideal for intricate welds eg root runs in pipe or thin sheet
Low productivity 0.5kg/h manual

High quality

Clean process, no slag


Low oxygen and nitrogen weld metal
Defect free, excellent profile even for single sided welds

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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - Equipment

Welding power source with constant


current characteristic

DC for most metals, AC for Al


Arc starting by high frequency (5000V, 0.05A)
Sequence timers for arc starting, arc finishing &
gas control

Water- or gas-cooled torch with tungsten


electrode

Electrode may contain thoria or zirconia, etc


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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - Shielding gases
Torch is fed with an inert or reducing gas

Pure argon - widespread applications


Argon-helium - Higher arc voltage, inert
Argon-2% hydrogen - Cu alloys & austenitic steel
Torch gas must not contain oxygen or CO2

Backing (or purge) gas

Used for all single-sided welds except in carbon steel


Argon, nitrogen, formier gas (N2 + H2)

Supplementary shielding

Reactive metals: Ti, etc


Gas filled chambers or additional gas supply devices
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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - Filler metals
Autogenous welding (no filler)
Filler wire or rod of matching composition

C-Mn & low alloy steel


Stainless Steel
Al, Mg, Ti
Cu & Ni

Consumable inserts - filler preplaced in joint

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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding - Automation

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Introduction to welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding A TIG

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Introduction to welding

GMAW and FCAW


Gas metal arc welding
(MIG, MAG, CO2 welding)
Flux cored arc welding
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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding
A continuous solid wire, small
diameter

GMAW uses solid wire, no flux


FCAW uses flux-filled wire

Fed through the gun to the arc by


wire feeder.
The weld pool may be protected
from oxidation by shielding gas.
High productivity 3 kg/h or more
Direct current (DCEP mostly)
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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding
MIG Welding
Heat source - arc between parent metal
and consumable electrode wire (0.6 to
1.6mm diameter)
60-500A, DC only
16-40V
1 to 20kW

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Equipment
Welding power source
Wire feeder mechanism

May be in power source cabinet

Gun with gas supply & trigger


switch

Manual (semi-automatic) guns


Automatic torches available
Can be fitted to robot etc.

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding Metal transfer

Spray

Higher current & voltage, argon-rich gas

Short circuiting (dip)

Low current and voltage, CO2

Globular

Intermediate current

Pulsed current power sources

Adjustable frequency
One droplet per current pulse.
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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding Metal transfer
Burn-back
and unstable arc

Spray

Voltage
Globular
Short
circuiting

No arc (birds-nesting)

Current

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Consumables

Solid Wires (GMAW)

A wide variety of alloys are available

Flux cored arc welding (FCAW)

Gas shielded flux cored wires


Self-shielded flux cored wires
Used outdoors

Metal cored wires


Light flux cover

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding Wire size

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Gas mixtures

Inert gases (MIG)

Argon or helium or mixtures of these


Active base metals, Al, Mg, Ti

Active gases (MAG and FCAW)

Carbon dioxide
Argon plus oxygen and/or carbon dioxide
Nitrogen, hydrogen
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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Developments

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Developments

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Developments

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Introduction to welding
Gas metal arc welding - Developments

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Introduction to welding
Plasma Cutting, Welding & Surfacing

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Introduction to welding

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Introduction to welding
Oxy-Acetylene Welding

Oxidising Flame

Carburising Flame

Neutral Flame

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Introduction to welding
Thermit welding

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Introduction to welding
Laser Welding

Photons transmit energy and heat


Energy intensity up to 109 Watts/cm2
Depth to width of hole up to 50x
Automatic controllers needed
90% efficiency
Reflectors dont weld easily
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Introduction to welding
Laser welding

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Introduction to welding
Electron Beam Welding
Electrons strike surface and generate heat
Best performed in a vacuum
Workpiece must be a conductor
Magnetic fields affect beam
Current to 1/2 A
Power to 100 kW
X-rays produced
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Introduction to welding
Electron Beam Welding

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Introduction to welding

Size of weld beads in


(a) electron-beam or laser-beam welding
(b) conventional arc welding.

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Introduction to welding
Solid-State Welding

Heat
Pressure
Time
NO Melting
NO Filler Material
Intimate Contact
Usually Requires Deformation
Works with Dissimilar Metals
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Introduction to welding
Resistance Welding

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Introduction to welding
Resistance spot welding Robots

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Introduction to welding
Flash Butt Welding

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Introduction to welding
Friction Welding

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Introduction to welding
Friction Stir Welding

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Introduction to welding
Friction Stir Welding

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Introduction to welding
Explosive Welding

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Introduction to welding

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ANY QUESTIONS

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Introduction to welding

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