You are on page 1of 25

3D Printing

P. Sujan Kumar
PhD Scholar,
AcSIR-RE

HISTORY OF 3D PRINTING
1984 - 86
Charles Deckard Hull invents 3D printing and coins
the term Stereo Lithography

1992
First 3D printer built by 3D Systems

1999
First application of 3D printing in the medical field creating the human bladder

2000
Miniature human kidney created through 3D printing

2006
The Selective Laser Sintering machine printing
multiple materials & fields

2009
First usable prosthetic leg this opens the door for
customized products using 3D printing

2011
3D printers start offering 14k gold as printable
material

3D Printing or Additive Manufacturing

It is a method of converting a

virtual 3D model into a


physical object.
3D object is created by
laying down successive
layers of material

Additive Manufacturing technologies

Vat Photopolymerisation (Stereolithography)


Material Jetting
Binder Jetting
Material Extrusion
Powder Bed Fusion
Sheet Lamination
Directed Energy Deposition

Different Methods/Technologies of 3D printing

Stereolithography
Selective laser sintering (SLS)
Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
Laminated object manufacturing
Ink-Jet 3D printing

Stereolithography

Stereo lithography is an additive


manufacturing process using a
liquid UV-curable photopolymer
resin and a UV laser to build parts
a layer at a time.

Material Jetting

In this process, material is applied in


droplets through a small diameter
nozzle, similar to the way a common
inkjet paper printer works, but it is
applied layer-by-layer to a build
platform making a 3D object and then
hardened by UV light.

Binder Jetting

In this process, powder base


material and a liquid binder
are used. In the build
chamber, powder is spread in
equal layers and binder is
applied through jet nozzles
that glue the powder
particles in the shape of a
programmed 3D object.

Powder bed fusion/ SLS method

Selective laser sintering (SLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser
(for example, a carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of plastic, metal (direct metal laser
sintering),ceramic or glass powders into a mass that has a desired 3-dimensional shape).

Fused deposition modeling (FDM)

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly used


for modeling, prototyping, and production applications. Basic materials used are either ABS
(Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Polylactic acid)

Sheet Lamination/ Laminated Object


Manufacturing method

In this method, layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic or metal laminates are successively
glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter.

Directed Energy Deposition

The 3D printing apparatus is usually attached to a multi-axis robotic arm and consists of a
nozzle that deposits metal powder or wire on a surface and an energy source (laser, electron
beam or plasma arc) that melts it, forming a solid object.

Working of a 3D printer
You only need a printer, raw material, and software to tell the
printer what to print.

STEP 1: Create CAD file using a software


STEP 2: CAD file is exported to a 3D printing machine
STEP 3: Load the material and the object is printed

Application areas

Industrial design
Automotive and aviation industries
Architecture
Food preparation
Medical industry
Toys
Complex Structure and many more

Examples:

Some of the 3D Printers available in market

Rep Rap
Model:
RepRapPro
Huxley

Eventorbot
Model:
Delta Micro
Up Afinia HSeries

Printrbot
Model:
Printrbot
GO

Makerbot
Model:
Replicator
2x

The Future
is 3D
Model:
Glacier
Steel

3D
Systems
Model:
CubeX

Formlabs
Model:
Form 1

Stratasys
Model: U
print SE
Plus

ADVANTAGES

RAPID PROTOTYPING: 3D printing gives designers the

ability to quickly turn concepts into 3D models or prototypes


(rapid prototyping).
Clean process. Wastage of material is negligible.
Complex shape can be produced .
EASY TO USE No skilled person needed.
REDUCE DESIGN COMPLEXITY
CHEAP Cheaper process than any other process.
People in remote locations can fabricate objects that would
otherwise be inaccessible to them.

DISADVANTAGES

Process is slow
Components do not have enough strength.
COST OF RAW MATERIALS
3-D printers are still expensive.
Misuse of technology
Although 3-D printers have the potential of creating many jobs
and opportunities, they might also put certain jobs at risk .

FUTURE of 3D printing
With today's 3D printers, if you lose your TV remote's battery
cover you can print a replacement battery cover. With
tomorrow's, if you lose your remote, you'll be able to print a
new remote.
3D printers are always getting cheaper and better.
There is currently research going on to create 3D printers that
could print out organs for people in need of a transplant.
Within a decade, 3D printers will become commonplace in
houses.

3D printer at CSIR

Material:

ABSplus-P430

Build envelope
(XYZ):

254 x 254 x 305 mm (10 x 10 x


12 in.)

Achievable
accuracy

.241 mm ( .0095 in.)

http://www.stratasys.com/3d-printers/designseries/fortus-250mc

Stratasys Fortus250mc

Some examples of printed products

Rapid Prototyping/ 3D Printing

ow To Prototype

Step 1: Idea Generation.


Step 2: Free Hand Sketch
Step 3: Dimensioning the sketched model
Step 4: Replicate in a CAD Software.
Step 5: Analyse the model in the software.
Step 6: Print it.
Step 7: Iterate the model with required
modifications

The future can not be predicted,


but it
can be made !