VITAMINS

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do not provide energy (calories) but they are needed for metabolism of energy,for biochemical functions, to protect health, and for normal growth and activity of the body function as coenzymes to activate enzymes

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VITAMINS

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The body needs vitamins in small amounts (microgram or milligram quantities) ± micronutrients Vitamins are essential in the diet because they cannot be made by the body or they are synthesized in inadequate amounts

VITAMINS

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Vitamins were discovered a mere 100 years ago as scientists searched to identify what components in food prevented the development of deficiency diseases such as scurvy (sailor¶s disease). As knowledge of vitamin functions and requirements grew, policies were enacted to enrich and fortify foods Fortification and enrichment have virtually eliminated vitamin deficiencies in the general American population

ESKI OS

D THEIR LI E STYLE

Eskimos food habits causes hyper vitaminosis Of vit. and deficiency of Vit. C, but they managed to get vit. C by taking berries.

EN IC MENT AN
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F

TIFICATI N

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Enrich: to add nutrients back that were lost during processing, e.g., white flour is enriched with B vitamins that are lost when the bran and germ layers are removed Fortify: to add nutrients that are not naturally found in the food, e.g., milk is fortified with vitamin , and some breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin

VITAMINS AN
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S

UBI ITY

Vitamins are organic compounds that are soluble in either water or fat; their solubility determines how they are absorbed, transported through the blood, stored, and excreted

TYPES- FAT AN VITAMINS
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Properties:
« « «

WATER S

UB E

Necessary for the function or structural integrity of specific body tissues and membranes. Can be retained in the body. Apolar hydrophobic compounds that can only be absorbed efficiently when there is normal fat absorption.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Properties:
± Act as catalysts and enzyme cofactors in metabolic processes and energy transfer. Are not stored in the body (excreted fairly rapidly) and must be replaced each day. These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation (overcooking)

±

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FAT ± SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Vitamin Physiologi c Importance
‡ Component of light-sensitive pigments in eye ‡ epithelial tissue maintenance ‡ regulation of gene expression and cell diffentiation

Deficiency
‡ Night blindness ‡ Xerophthalmia ‡ Associated with Bitot's spots, ‡keratomalacia, follicular hyperkeratosis

Excess
Carotenemia; Bleeding; epatosplenomegaly (rare).

Food RDA sourc e
5,000 IU Green vegetable s, dairy products, eggs, liver

A
(Retinol, -carotene)

D
(Calciferol)

‡ initiates calcium absorption in intestine and causes bone mineralization ‡ Promotes hardening of bones and teeth ‡ Antioxidant (Protects vitamins A and C, fatty acids and red blood cell membranes from destruction due to oxidation)

‡ Rickets (children) ‡ steomalacia (adults)

‡ ypercal400 IU cemia leading for to metastatic adults calcification and renal damage (rare).

airy products, eggs, Fish liver oils. Synthesized by sunlight action on skin. Margarine, seeds, green leafy vegetables

E
(Tocopherols, tocotrienols)

‡ Possibly anemia ‡ Serious neurologic dysfunction (extremely rare) ‡ Increase hemolysis of red blood cells Muscular dystrophy

None

15 IU (Men) 12 IU (Women)

‡ Blood clotting Required for (Phylloquinone, synthesis of menaquinones) Prothrombin (II) and clotting factors VII, IX and X.

K

‡ emorrhagic disease ‡ ypoprothrombinemia resulting in bleeding tendency

emolytic anemia (rare)

No RDA. 300-500 mcg is considered adequate

‡ Green leafy vegetables , liver; ‡ Naturally produced by bacteria in the intestine.

WATERVITAMI
Vitamin

E

Physiologi Exces c Deficiency s Importance
‡ catalyst in carbohydrate metabolism, nerve and heart function ‡ Beriberi (wet and dry) ‡ Wernicke's encephalopathy ‡ Korsakoff's psychosis Transient flushing, dizziness

RDA
‡ 0.5 mg/1000 calories consumed ‡ 1.6 mg for adults

Food source
rgan meats, pork, whole grains, legumes, cereals, yeast, egg yolk

1
(Thiamine)

B2
(Riboflavin, vitamin G)

‡ essential part of enzyme systems concerned with oxidation and reduction in living cells. ‡ Constituent of flavoproteins

* Eye irritation,
corneal vascularization, inflammation and breakdown of skin cells ‡ cheilosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis

None.

‡ 0.55 mg/1000 calories consumed. ‡1.6 mg for adults

Milk products, liver, eggs, grains, legumes, dark green vegetables, cereals, fruit, yeast

* VIT. B2 DEFICIENCY

B3
(Niacin, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic acid)

‡ xidationreduction reactions in cellular respiration ‡ Functional part of NAD and NADP.

‡ Pellagra (skin and gastrointestinal disorders, nerve inflammation, mental disorders)

‡ Flushing due to vasodilation occurs with intravenous injection (rare). ‡ Abnormal liver function; cramps; nausea

iver, lean meats, poultry, fish, whole and ‡ 18 mg (male) enriched grain ‡13 mg products, (female) legumes ‡ 6.6 mg/1000 calories consumed.

B5
(Pantothenic Acid)

‡ Energy metabolism needed to form coenzyme-A (CoA), and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. ‡ For pyruvate oxidation and biological acetylations

Fatigue, loss of coordination

None known

0.5-10.0 mg for both adults and children is adequate

Milk products, liver, kidney, eggs, whole grains, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.

B6
(Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine)

‡ Aids in amino acid metabolism, absorption; aids in red blood cell formation; helps body use fats. ‡ Coenzyme for decarboxylase and transaminase systems

‡ Convulsions, irritability, kidney stones ‡ Glossitis; blepharitis; dermatitis; cheilosis; peripheral neuropathy; sideroblastic anemia.

Transient paresthesias

‡ 0.2 mg/100mg C N ‡ 1.8 mg (male) ‡ 1.5 mg (female)

Whole-grain cereals, vegetables, meats

B12
(Cyanocobala min)

‡ Nucleic acid production

‡ Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia); ‡ Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord; peripheral neuropathy.

None.

3 mcg for adults

Red meats, iver, eggs, dairy products and fish

Biotin
(Vitamin H)

‡ Fat synthesis and amino acid metabolism ‡ Part of the enzyme systems participating in conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate (gluconeogenesis)

‡ Depression, fatigue, nausea, alopecia, dermatitis, atrophy of lingual papillae, muscle pain, paresthesias, hypercholesterole mia, and electrocardiogram abnormalities

None known

150-300 iver, kidney, mcg usually egg yolk, milk, meets daily most fresh needs vegetables, legumes; also made by intestinal bacteria.

C
(Ascorbic Acid)

‡ Collagen formation in teeth, bone, and connective tissue of blood vessels ‡ may help in resisting infection ‡ absorption of iron, calcium, folacin ‡ Ascorbic acid is a great antioxidant ‡ works with vitamin E as a free-radical scavenger.

‡ Scurvy ‡(breakdown of skin, blood vessels, and teeth) ‡ impaired wound healing. *Vitamin C deficiencyoften results secondary to hyperparathyroidism

‡ None known ‡ Minimalpossibly urinary calculi, gastrointestinal complaints including diarrhea, nausea and abdominal cramps

‡ 40-60 mg ‡ 200 - 500 mg per day (most beneficial)

Citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables , tomatoes

‡ Nucleic acid metabolism

Folic Acid
(Folacin)

‡ Megaloblastic anemia (Pernicious anemia)

None.

400 mcg for adults

Whole-wheat foods, green vegetables, legumes, organ meats, fish, citrus fruits.

FAT-S

UB E VITAMINS

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Vitamins A, D, E, and K Because they are stored in liver and adipose tissue, Vitamins A, D, E, and K do not need to be consumed daily Vitamins A and D are toxic when consumed in large quantities over a long period

WATER-S

UB E VITAMINS

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B-complex vitamins and Vitamin C not generally stored in the body so a daily intake is necessary are considered nontoxic adverse side effects, however, can occur from taking megadoses of certain watersoluble vitamins over a prolonged period

VITAMINS, DIET AND
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EA T

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Although diets rich in fruits and vegetables appear to be protective against chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and hypertension, it is not known what components in them are responsible for the health benefits Antioxidant vitamins in foods are suspected of being beneficial

FREE RADICA S
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Are produced continuously in cells as they burn oxygen during normal metabolism Problem - they oxidize body cells and DNA in their quest to gain an electron and become stable These structurally and functionally damaged cells are believed to contribute to aging and various health problems such as cancer, heart disease, and cataracts

ANTI XIDANTS AND FREE RADICA S
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Antioxidants - substances that donate electrons to free radicals to prevent oxidation Antioxidants protect body cells from being oxidized (destroyed) by free radicals by undergoing oxidization themselves, which renders free radicals harmless Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and beta-carotene are major antioxidants

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VITAMINS AND SUPP EMENTS: M RE IS N T BETTER
Megadoses: amounts at least ten times greater than the RDA In megadoses vitamins function like drugs, not nutrients ong-term safety has not been established Some reports indicate that single-nutrient supplements may actually increase, not decrease, health risks

igh-dose supplements have not been proven to prevent disease and may disrupt nutrient balances

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VITAMINS AND SPECIA NEEDS P PU ATI NS
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It is recommended that women who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micrograms of folic acid through supplements or fortified food daily People over the age of 50 are urged to consume most of their B12 requirement from supplements or fortified food Vegans need supplemental B12 and D, if exposure to sunshine is inadequate

FACTS AB UT FRUIT AND VEGETAB E INTAKE AM NG AMERICANS
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When French fries and potato chips are excluded, Americans eat only about 3.6 servings of fruits and vegetables daily 9 out of 10 teenage girls do not eat five servings of fruit and vegetables daily Fruit and vegetable intake is declining--romaine lettuce and bag lettuce are the only vegetables Americans are eating more of. besity levels are lowest for people who eat the most fruit and vegetables

T B ST INTAKE FRUITS:
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F VEGETAB ES AND

Eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables every day Choose wholesome, nutrient-dense foods over refined or processed foods Concentrate on variety and color Make an effort to preserve the vitamin content of foods during storage and preparation Avoid overcooking vegetables Microwave vegetables instead of boiling

T B ST INTAKE FRUITS:
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F VEGETAB ES AND

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rder a vegetable when you eat out Choose 100% fruit juice at breakfast and instead of drinks, cocktails, ades, and/or carbonated beverages during the day Eat fruit for dessert Make fruits and vegetables more visible ± eave a bowl of fruit on the center of your table ± Keep fresh vegetables on the top shelf of the refrigerator in plain view

BLI

ESS

XEROPHTHALMIA

BITOT¶S SPOT

RICKETS

.

BERIBERI

CHEILOSIS

GLOSSITIS

GLOSSITIS

VIT. B2 DEFICIENCY

NIACIN DEFICIENCY

PELLAGRA

VIT. B12 DEFICIENCY

FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY

SCURVY

enough sir, Finish soon your lecture !

Thank you For your kind attention

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