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**9F Unit 905, Pearl Bank Centre
**

146 Valero Street, Salcedo Village,

Makati City Philippines

T : 02- 533 - 4016 (www.wilo.com)

PUMP FUNDAMENTALS

Darwin S. Ibanez

darwin.ibanez@wilo-philippi

nes.com

0917 865 3046

What will we cover?

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Pumping System

Capacity (Flow Rate)

Total Dynamic Head

Static Head

Dynamic Head

Suction head

Suction lift

Affinity Laws

NPSHA

System Curve

Pumping Systems

**A pumping system consists of:
**

•

•

•

•

**All of the piping
**

Vessel

Other types of equipment (valves, meters, elbows, etc.),

Everything that is interconnected to form a path for

liquid to flow

Pumping Systems

**The amount of liquid
**

flowing through a

pumping system is

known as the

capacity or flow rate

Pumping Systems

**A pump must overcome
**

the resistance of a

pumping system in order

to cause a liquid to flow

completely through the

system

Resistance to liquid flow is

known as a pumping

system’s Total Dynamic

Head (TDH)

Head

Pump

Resistance

more later !!! - .Pumping Systems Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is the sum of two parts: Static Head + Dynamic Head Total Dynamic Head All Head values are measured in Feet or Meters Trust me for now.

Pumping Systems Static head represents the resistance of a pumping system before the liquid is set into motion Dynamic head represents the resistance of a pumping system while the pumped fluid is in motion .

Static Head The primary component of Static head is the elevation difference between: • the surface of the liquid at the point of suction • the surface of the liquid at the point of discharge Static head also accounts for the pressure differential between the point of suction and the point of discharge Static head does not vary with capacity .

HS Pump Centerline .Centrifugal Pump Hydraulics Static Pump Head (Flooded Suction) Example #1 Non-Operating (Static) Static Head Suction Head HS Discharge Head HD Static Head=HD .

Centrifugal Pump Hydraulics Static Pump Head (Flooded Suction) Example #1 Non-Operating (Static) 120 FT 160 FT Static Head= 160’-40’= 120’ 40 FT Pump Centerline .

Centrifugal Pump Hydraulics Static Pump Head (Suction Lift) Example #2 Non-Operating (Static) Static Head Discharge Head HD Suction Lift LS Pump Centerline Static Head=HD + LS Note: suction lift requires self priming pumps or suction check valves .

Centrifugal Pump Hydraulics Static Pump Head (Suction Lift) Example #2 Non-Operating (Static) 180 FT 160 FT 20 FT Pump Centerline Static Head= 160’+20’= 180’ .

Dynamic Head 50 psi 30 psi Dynamic head losses are those losses that are realized once fluid begins to flow through the pumping system These losses are due to friction. often called Friction Losses Dynamic head losses are a function of capacity .

Dynamic Head Dynamic head losses are made up of two parts: Each component of a pumping system contributes to the dynamic head losses for the entire system through Friction Losses Accelerating the pumped fluid from zero to it’s final velocity requires energy .this is known as Velocity Head Loss .

8 0.4 0.7 3.8 7.3 10.6 5.8 6.9 17. pipe diameter & pipe length See the reference materials in your classroom handout Head loss in Feet (PSI) per 100’ of pipe GPM 10 20 30 40 45 70 100 1" Ft.0 3.50" Ft.8 23.3 62.0 10.7 5.1 13.6 0.1 3.1 54. PSI 2" Ft.8 0.8 2.3 1.7 4.8 1.5 40.8 13.9 25.9 8. PSI 6.6 10.8 3. PSI 1.9 1.6 95.4 1.5 26.2 0.5 .9 6.3 0.8 2. PSI 1.8 13.Friction Head Loss Friction head losses increase drastically with increased flow • • A typical friction loss table for piping illustrates friction losses as a function of capacity.3 13.7 68.1 0.3 2.25" Ft.9 1.6 23.5 31.4 0.5 30.2 29.

Friction Head Loss Every component of a pumping system has associated friction losses Equivalent length Flow meters PSI 20 1” 2” 3” 15 10 5 GPM 25 100 175 TYPE 90 Elbow Gate valve Globe valve Swing check 1” 1.2 2.8 2.9 1.2 17 27 38 250 Friction loss tables can be obtained from the component manufacturer or various other reference sources Friction losses are a function of capacity and component size .6 2.6 2” 3.1 3” 4.4 4” 5.9 45 70 94 120 7.

53’ Pipe length = 4’ + 4’ + 2’ + 20’ + 20’ + 18’ + 20’ = 88’ Total friction losses = 1.Friction Head Loss 20’ System Flow = 100 GPM Pump 20’ 20’ 2” Pipe 4’ Nozzle 9.4’ per hundred feet .2’ req’d 18’ Static Head 2’ Suction Lift In this example the friction loss calculation is: 4’ 8’ Equivalent length of fittings: 3 elbows = 3 x (K*V2/2g) = 3 * 0.5’ + (88’ x 17.42 = 1.4/100) = 17’ > Where the pipe friction loss is 17.36 *1.

2’ req’d 18’ 20’ 20’ 2” Pipe 2’ In this example the friction loss calculation is: Equivalent length of fittings: 2 elbows = 2 x (0.4/100) = 15’ .Friction Head Loss System Flow = 100 GPM 20’ Static Head 15’ Pump Suction Head 20’ Nozzle 9.02’ Pipe length = 20’ + 20’ + 18’ + 20’ = 78’ Total friction losses = 1.02 +(78’ x 17.42)’ = 1.36 *1.

0155 V2 Velocity head loss in feet • Velocity Head Loss is simply a function of the velocity of the fluid flowing through the pumping system • This value is usually small. and often neglected .Be Careful • The appropriate value is given in many friction loss tables .Velocity Head Velocity ft/sec Hv = V2/2g = .

Total Dynamic Head What is my system’s TDH? The pumping system’s total dynamic head is simply the sum of the system’s static head and dynamic head .

2’ .2’ TDH = 24’ + 17’ + 9.2’ req’d In this example the total dynamic head is equal to: 8’ Static head = 24’ Dynamic head > friction losses = 17’ > nozzle = 9.2 = 50.Total Dynamic Head 20’ System Flow = 100 GPM Pump 20’ 20’ 2” Pipe 18’ Static Head 2’ Suction Lift 4’ 4’ Nozzle 9.

2’ req’d .5’ + 9.2 = 29.1’ Nozzle 9.Total Dynamic Head System Flow = 100 GPM 20’ Static Head 15’ Pump Suction Head 20’ 18’ 20’ 20’ 2” Pipe 2’ In this example the total dynamic head is equal to: Static head = 3’ Dynamic head >friction losses = 15’ >nozzle = 9.2’ TDH = 3’ + 15.

. . .Head vs..not pressure! ... Pressure Because.. A given pump will generate the same ‘feet of head’ regardless of the liquid being pumped but.the discharge pressure will vary with the specific gravity of the liquid! Centrifugal pumps develop head .

Pressure .Head vs.

Effect of Specific Gravity on Static Head .

0 lbs/gal • Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a liquid to the weight of water • The specific gravity of gasoline is 6.33 = .0 / 8.Specific Gravity Water = 8.72 .33 lbs/gal Gasoline = 6.

Head vs. Pressure Water Gasoline 100 PSI 72 PSI Two identical pumps operating in identical systems will develop the same ‘head’ but.. discharge gauges will give different readings if the specific gravity of the liquids being pumped is different ..

4 Hp required .31 SG >Example: 20 Hp pump x (.Specific Gravity Is very important because: • • It affects the brake horsepower requirements of the pump.31 • Multiply water Hp x SG to get actual Hp Feet of Head = PSI x 2..72 fuel) = 14. All pressure information is converted to ‘feet of head’ by using the specific gravity of the liquid being pumped • PSI = Feet of Head x SG 2. and..

Effect S.G. On Pump Performance .

System Curve A System Curve is a graphical representation of the resistance behavior (TDH) of a pumping system over it’s entire capacity range A system curve shows: >the static head component ( which is constant over the entire capacity range) >the dynamic head component ( which increases with capacity) .

System Curve HEAD Dynamic Head Static Head CAPACITY The System curve is a function of the size of piping. type of equipment. and physical layout of a pumping system .

System Curve HEAD Dynamic Head Static Head CAPACITY • The system designer can change the shape of the System curve by altering the size of piping. and physical layout of the pumping system . type of equipment.

changing equipment or piping layouts.System Curve HEAD Dynamic Head Static Head • CAPACITY The end user can change the shape of the System curve by opening or closing system valves. and varying the liquid levels in the suction or discharge tanks .

Mental Note It is a good system design practice to include suction and discharge valves in a pumping system. Isolating the pump for maintenance considerations Using the discharge valve as a throttling valve to control the pump A discharge check valve may also be required in high discharge head applications A suction check valve is required for suction lift without a self primer. o ut y a mL e t nt s s i y r p S e Blu .

The Suction Side… Net Positive Suction Head Calculation and Application .

..Suction Side Limitations The importance of keeping within the suction side limitations of any pump cannot be emphasized too greatly KEEP IN MIND THAT.90% of all pump problems are due to poor suction conditions! .. ..

Suction Side Limitations NPSH Available is the term that describes whether the pressure on the suction side is adequate for proper pump operation Self-priming applications must also consider the amount of air the pump is required to evacuate .

NPSH Available Proper system design allows for the highest possible NPSHA Factors affecting NPSH Available include: Pressure acting on the surface of the liquid Relative elevation of the liquid Friction losses in the suction piping Velocity of the liquid in the suction piping Vapor pressure of the liquid These factors constitute a system’s dynamic suction condition and must be carefully considered before a final pump selection can be made .

NPSH .The Rule NPSHA must be sufficiently greater than NPSHR in order to prevent: • • • • • Poor pump performance Excessive vibration Noisy operation Premature failure of components Cavitation .

Definition Vaporization of a liquid followed by rapid condensation (bubble collapse). . Occurs when the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure.Cavitation .

Impeller Cavitation can occur at the inlet of the impeller if the suction pressure falls below the liquid vapor pressure. .Cavitation .

Effects * Large vapor volumes can cause reduction in head generation. .Cavitation . * Large vapor volumes can cause surging and unstable flows. or loss of prime. * Intense pressures near metal surfaces exceed material strength and fatigue metals. * Creates pitted surfaces. * Bubbles collapsing create intense pressures and (10.000 psi) shock waves.

. 2) The sum of all head losses / reductions between the pump inlet (A) and point of lowest pressure in the pump (D).NPSHR 1) Suction head required to prevent vaporization at the impeller inlet.

Cavitation Detection & Cures > > > Tell Tale Indicators • • • Audible Noise (Pumping Rocks\Cracking) • • Problem Eliminated By Throttling • • • Increase NPSHa Loss of Pressure\Flow Pitted Impellers Verification Cures Pressure\Power Triangulation Eliminate Suction Obstructions Increase System Head .

Pressure Acting On The Surface Of The Liquid Pressure acting on the surface of a liquid “pushes” it into the pump Atmospheric pressure Pressurized tank Vacuum tank The pressure on the liquid is the major contributor to the NPSHA of a system .

31 specific gravity Atmospheric pressure = 14.7 PSI (sea level) = 34 Feet Pressurized vessel = Absolute pressure gauge reading Vacuum vessel = Vacuum gauge reading .NPSHA • Pressure values must be converted to “feet of head” using the following formula: Feet of head • • • = PSI x 2.

Relative Elevation Of The Liquid Static suction head implies that the liquid level is above the inlet of the pump Static suction lift implies that the liquid level is below the inlet of the pump PUMP • • Static suction head increases NPSHA because gravity helps pull liquid into the pump Static suction lift decreases NPSHA because the pump must work against gravity .

Friction Losses In The Suction Piping 20 mm Hg 10 mm Hg Friction losses in suction piping decrease NPSHA Factors affecting friction losses include: >Size of piping >length of piping >Fittings and equipment .

Vapor Pressure Of The Liquid The vapor pressure of the liquid must be carefully considered to insure proper pump operation • • • Vapor pressure indicates the dividing line between a liquid and its gaseous state Vapor pressure typically varies with temperature The pressure in the suction line must never fall below the vapor pressure of the liquid .

Vapor Pressure A liquid with a vapor pressure of 8 psi @ 100 deg F requires at least 8 psi of pressure acting on it’s surface to stay a liquid. . The pressure in a fluid handling system must be equal to or greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid at every point throughout that system. Without sufficient pressure the liquid will flash into a gas and become un-pumpable.

Just Give Me The Formula .

PV Atmospheric (Barometric) Pressure Above PB ( + ) The Suction Source (FT) .Net Positive Suction Head Available (System) = PB + HS .HF .Absolute Lowest Liquid Height Above The Suction HS ( + ) Centerline Of The Pump (FT) HF ( .) Friction Loss From The Source To The Suction Centerline Of The Pump (FT) Vapor Pressure Of the Liquid At The PV ( .) Maximum Operating Temperature (FT) Absolute .

PV PB All Values Must Be Converted To Feet From Absolute Pressures! Use Charts Attached For Vapor Pressures At The Proper Temperature Use The Minimum Liquid Height Above The Pump Suction! PV HS HF .Net Positive Suction Head Available NPSHA = PB + HS .HF .

Sea Level PB = 14.7 PSIA HS = 15 FT 60 O F VP=? HF = 5 ‘ NPSHA = PB + HS .0 FT = 43.0 FT .NPSHA Example A Flooded Suction .HF .Ambient Temp. .1.PV = 34 FT + 15 FT .5 FT .

.6 FT = 10.0 FT .NPSHA Example B Flooded Suction .HF .PV = 27.6 FT + 15 FT .0 PSIA 200 O F VP=? HS = 15 FT HF = 5 FT NPSHA = PB + HS .High Temp.High Altitude (5500 FT) PB = 12.5 FT .27.

Temp.PV HF = 5 FT = 34 FT + (-15 FT) .HF .0 .7 PSIA 60 O F VP=1. .4 FT HS = 15 FT PB = 14.NPSHA Example C Suction Lift .Sea Level NPSHA = PB + HS .0 FT = 13.Amb.5 FT 1.

1 FT .3 FT + 6 FT .Sea Level 1.NPSHA Example D Boiler Feed .0 PSIA NPSHA = PB + HS .2 FT = 5.1 FT .HF .PV 100 F VP=? O HS = 6 FT HF = 1 FT = 2.2.

THANK YOU! .

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