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AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING

WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION

GROUP NO-1
WE THE GROUP MEMBERS:
MD. BULBUL AHMED
10.01.03.003
MD.SHARIFUL ISLAM
10.01.03.008
MD.YOUSUF BIN AZIZ
10.01.03.018
ABU SAYED MD.TARIN
10.01.03.020
MD.FARHAN ABIR
10.01.03.026
MD.SABBIR KARIM
10.01.03.037
MD.YASIN
10.01.03.038
MD.EZAZ AHMED
10.01.03.041
S.M.RAHAT RAHMAN
10.01.03.044
MD.ABU RAIHAN
10.01.03.049

OUR TOPIC IS

DEEP FOUNDATION
SABBI
R
YASIN

RAHAT

PRESENTING BY
BULBU
L

RAIHA
N
FARHA
N

Deep Foundation
Foundation:

Foundation is the lowest and


supporting layer of a structure.

Geotechnical engineers design foundations based on


the load characteristics of the structure.

FOUNDATION

SHALLOW
FOUNDATION

DEEP FOUNDATION

The most common forms of construction pertaining to deep


foundation are :

PILES

PIERS

CAISSONS

Shallow Foundation

RAFT

Deep Foundation

AST IN SITU PILEPRECAST PILE

PILES

CAISSONS

PIERS

Classification of Piles
Depending upon materials used in their manufacture,
piles can be classified as :
a)
Concrete Piles
i) Cast-In-Place or cast-in-situ Piles
ii) Pre-cast Piles
iii) Pre-stressed concrete Piles
b) Steel Piles
c) Timber Piles
d) Composite Piles

DIFFERENT TYPES OF
PILES

PRECAST PILE

Definition & Explanation

PRE-CAST PILE: Pre means before & cast


means made. So precast pile refers to a pile that
has made before it is being used.

PRECASTPILE

Why and Where it is used?


Pre cast pile is used for extra heavy weight
structure because it can ensure full strength by
proper maintaining.
It can be used under water.
There is no possibility of the reinforcements
getting displaced.
There is no possibility of the voids being left.
Not to attack by corrosive constituents in the
soil and the sub-soil water.

SHAPES OF PRE-CAST
PILES

HEXAGONAL

CIRCULAR

RECTANGULAR

DESIGN OF PRECAST PILE

Structure of Precast pile & Related


Information

By the soil test, we would be find the depth of penetrate.


By which length of a pile can be determined.
After determine the total weight of the building, we would find
the number of piles.
The diameter of the pile normally varies from 35 cm to 65 cm
and their length varies from 20 ft to 30 ft.
Besides bearing load for easy transportation & movement big
weir or reinforcement is used in the pre cast pile.
For easy driven rectangular pile is often made.

Longitudinal reinforcement usually consists of one bar 20 mm to


50mm in diameter at each angle of the section of the pile.
The vertical rods are tied horizontally by bars 6mm to 10mm in
diameter.
The horizontal bars may be provided in the form of stirrups
wound around the verticals.
Pile shoe & pile stirrup is used in the lower part of the pile to
driven the pile easily.

CASING

SOIL CONDITION
Soil suitability
Suitable in a wide

range of soil conditions


Working loads in excess
of 1000kN
Useful for very deep
piling upto 40 m
In soft ground or in
aggressive or
contaminated soils

Bearing Capacity

High bearing capacity


Concrete formations
around the contracted
sections increase the
capacity.
Compact soil &
increase the bearing
capacity

Process of Precast pile

Steel form is used for the precast pile


manufacture.
Before pore the concrete in to the
form, Mobil or other kind of oil have
been used.
cement, sand ,aggregate ratio is
normally 1:2:4 in pre cast pile.
But to make the foundation stronger
mix ratio is used 1:1.5:3
When the concrete pore in the steel
form it would be ramming by the
vibrator.

Picture of Processing Precast pile

Curing & Driving


After 3 days, pile have been covering
by the sheet.
After 3 days of casting, steel form
would be removed.
Then the piles would be prepare for 4
weeks curing.
Then the piles are transported to the site
for driving

Picture of Curing

Picture of Driving

Advantages of Precast Pile

Cast well before work.


Well supervised
Reinforcement remain in their proper position
Can be driven under water
After driven they can be loaded soon
We can get required strength
Detect the damage before use
Properly cured by water

Disadvantages of Precast Pile

Difficult to manufacture
Not economical
Subject to longitudinal and transverse cracking
Not aesthetic
Not appropriate for curved or flared structures
Complicated for skews

Reinforcement of the Site

Main rod 22 mm diameter


Stirrup 10 mm diameter 60 grade
Spacing on stirrup 4~6~4
Some extra16 mm rod was provide in both two end due to
pressure
extra rod length is 3.5
Clear cover 2 for subsurface
Stirrup hook bend at 135 degree & bending portion is 3
long Steel shuttering
Triangle pile shoe was set in the bottom of the pile

Difference of Theoretical & Practical


Practical

Theoretical
We can joint two pile
together

We use one pile to


drive.

Maximum length 40 ft

They use 50~55 ft pile

All of the test have to

They only do some test

done before use

in site

Cast In Situ Pile

WHAT IS CAST-IN-SITU PILES?

Cast in situ piles are those piles which are


cast in position in side the ground.
Reinforcements are necessary to be provided
in a cast in situ Piles , when the pile acts as a
column and is subjected to a lateral force.

WHAT IS CAST-IN-SITU PILES?

PURPOSE OF CAST-IN-SITU PILE

Load Transmission
Load Resistance

TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES


SIMPLEX PILE

FRANKI PILE

TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES


VIBRO PILE

VIBRO EXPANDED PILE

TYPES OF CAST IN SITU PILES


RAYMOND PILE

MAC ARTHUR PILE

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE OF CAST IN SITU PILE

LOOSANING OF SOIL
I.

Cutting and Scraping


Boring Grab
Cutting Teeth For Rotary Drilling
ii. Ripping
iii. Percussion

REMOVAL OF SOIL
Intermittent

Transport
Rope Grab
Rotary Drill

CONTINUOUS TRANSPORT
Flush Drilling
Continuous Auger

TEMPORARY SUPPORT
Drill Casing

Vibrating
Oscillating
Rotating

DRILLING MUD

Water
Bentonite
Polymer

ENLARGED BASE

Under reaming
Grouting
Plug Expulsion
CASTING Of Pile

Reinforcem
ent

Concret
e Mix

Casting
of
Concret
e

BORING PROCESS
Choice of place and boring machine

FIELD TANK AND REMOVAL OF OVERFLOWING


WATER

THE PROCESS OF CASTING


Insertion of temporary casing with shoe

THE PROCESS OF CASTING


Placement of reinforcement

THE PROCESS OF CASTING


CASTING OF CONCRETE

THE PROCESS OF CASTING


CASTING OF CONCRETE

THE PROCESS OF CASTING


Removal of temporary tube and finish of
casting

COMPARISON BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICAL


FIELD

Theoretically
Pouring of
Concrete and
Withdrawing of
steel tube
gradually
Polymer,
Bentonite, or
Steel Case is

Practical Field
Steel tube is
withdrawn after
28 days
Only Bentonite
solution is used
Only Rotary drill
is used

DIFFICULTIES OF PILEING AND HOW TO


OVERCOME THIS

PROBLEM

SOLUTION

Rocky layer of
soil with stone
Rising water
from the bottom
of hole
Corrosion can be
occurred

Abort drilling
Pump the water.
Best, use
precast pile
Soil test is
needed.
Corrosion
resistant cement

ADVANTAGES OF CAST-IN-SITU PILES

Cannot be used under water


Displacement of reinforced
Dumping of concrete from a great height
Inspection is not possible; voids may be left
Contact of water of concrete to the dry soil
if uncased
Freshly laid concrete is susceptible to soil
components
Driving of adjacent piles may rupture shellless cast-in-situ pile

DISADVANTAGES OF CAST-IN-SITU PILES

Cannot be used under water


Displacement of reinforced
Dumping of concrete from a great height
Inspection is not possible; voids may be left
Contact of water of concrete to the dry soil if uncased
Freshly laid concrete is susceptible to soil components
Driving of adjacent piles may rupture shell-less cast-insitu pile

ANY QUERY ???

THANK YOU