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Malaysia, December 2014


1. Principles
2. What are the main
hydrothermal minerals
3. Surface alteration
4. Subsurface alteration

The concept of

 An initial fluid of composition A1 reacts with primary minerals in
the parent rock R1. The water – rock interaction alters the fluid
to A2 and forms alteration minerals of composition R2.
 Hydrothermal alteration is a process that occurs due to a
reaction between the rocks with the geothermal fluid.
 Hydrothermal alteration depend on: Temperature, pressure, type
of rock, fluid composition (especially pH) and duration of the
reaction (Browne, 1984).

The alteration mineralogy can tell you
information about:

•Fluid type
•(Relative) CO2, O2 and H2S contents of
•Changes in hydrology (e.g. shifts in T,

Methods to use • Petrography. To identify minerals. • PIMA (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer • Spectrometer • X-Ray Diffraction. • Fluid Inclusion geothermometry: To determine temperatures and fluid salinities . such as clays. To identify minerals and determine their textural relations. zeolites group.


---Tells us about fluid/mineral relations • Direct deposition of minerals in veins .PROCESSES IN GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM (affecting minerals in rock) • Leaching and mineral dissolution. ---Tells us about fluid/mineral relations . ---Tells us about processes that affect fluids • Replacement of older minerals.

Leaching .

.Direct deposition from a cooling fluid.

Albite replacing andesine .

Surface Alteration .

Subsurface Alteration .

Subsurface Alteration .


4H2O) Epidote (Ca(Al.e.2H2O) Laumontite (CaAl2Si4O12.What are some geothermal minerals? i.Fe)[AlSi3O10](OH)2 Titanite (CaTiSiO5) . REACTION & DEPOSITION PRODUCTS Silicate Group • • • • • • • • Quartz Adularia (KAlSi3O8) Albite (NaAlSi3O8) Wairakite (CaAl2Si4O12.Fe)3Si3O12(OH) Prehnite (Ca2(Al.

Fe)6AlSi3O10(OH) • Illite KAl2Si4O10(OH) • Smectites (Ca.Mg.nH2O • Interlayered clays ( illite-smectites) • Kaolins Al2Si2O5(OH)4 .Na)0.Fe)4[Si.Al]8O20]OH4.7(Al.Clay Minerals • Chlorite (Mg.

Sulphates. Sulphides & Carbonates • • • • • • • • • Pyrite (FeS2) Pyrrhotite (~FeS) Sphalerite and other base-metal sulphides Anydrite (CaSO4) Barite (BaSO4) Alunite (Na.K)Al3(SO4)2(OH) Calcite (CaCO3) Siderite (FeCO3) Aragonite .

Others ( minor ) • • • • • • • • Apatite Fluorite Tourmaline Biotite Actinolite Leucoxene Hematite Titanite(sphene) .

Temperature Can be indicated by: • Clay Minerals • Calc-silicates • Some other minerals And also by:  Fluid inclusion geothermometry .

Clays and Temperature • Montmorillonite is stable to ~140 0 • Discrete illite is stable above ~210 0 • Interlayered illite/smectites are stable in the range 140.2100 (the hotter the more the illite) • Crystallinity of clays increases with increasing T. .

Calc-silicates • E.G: mordenite is stable up to 1200 • Laumontite is stable from 120 to 2100 Wairakite is stable from 210 to > 3000 • Epidote is stable above 2500 • Ca-garnet is stable above ~ 2900 • Prehnite is stable above ~2200 • Actinolite is stable above ~2900 .

Temp/calc-silicate mineral relations • Apply in many geothermal fields • Are independent of rock type • Zeolites are very thermally sensitive in the range 80 to 150 0C .

Acid waters (low pH) and clays • Halloysite stable to ~ 900? • Kaolinite stable to ~1500 • Dickite is stable from ~150 to ~2400 • Pyrophyllite is stable above ~2500 .

Minerals with no temperature significance • • • • • • Adularia Calcite Pyrite Anhydrite Titanite (sphene) Hematite .

g. pH changes) .Ranking of feldspar alteration  Can be used to: • Determine depth of production casing • Recognising permeable formations • Predicting well outputs (qualitative) • Locating permeable zones • Feldspars are sensitive to overprints (e.

pyrrhotite MODERATE K: albite + adularia HIGH K: adularia .Permeability Ranking of feldspars • • • • • Replacement occurs IMPERMEABLE: Primary andesine LOW K: albite.

Opal-A • Hot acid: alunite. diaspore. pyrophylitte. marcasite?. dickite.Minerals and fluid type • Acid steam condensate: kaolins. adularia etc • Heated ground waters: clinoptilolite. • Bicarbonate/CO2-rich: montmorillonite. siderite • Neutral pH thermal: calc-silicates. smectites .mordenite. sulfates (alunite and natroalunite).

Boiling and Minerals  Boiling zones may be recognised by veins with: • Quartz • Adularia • Bladed calcite • Inclusions with different liquid to vapour ratios (By FLUID INCLUSION METHODE) .

Boiling and minerals Calcite deposits because of loss of CO 2 ( Ca2+ HCO3- CaCO3 +CO2 +H2O) Adularia deposits because of a pH increase caused by CO2 loss H+ +HCO3- CO2 +H2O Quartz deposits because of cooling. .

Lattice Bladed texture : Boiling Indication .

. Ca-garnet even better) .Bad News • Is there much calcite ? If Yes..Bad News • Do calc-silicates occur ? If so which ones? – (epidote is a good sign..Predicting Scaling • Is there much SiO2 ? If Yes........

Predicting Corrosion Beware of cores and cuttings with: • Alunite • Diaspore • Dickite • Pyrophyllite • Siderite/hematite/jarosite/marcasite .


gas.  When observed at room temperature. . fluid inclusions often contain multiple phases.What are fluid inclusions ?  Fluid inclusions are samples of fluid (liquid. melt) trapped in minerals during or following formation of the mineral.

4. nothing is added to or removed from the inclusion. 2.Assumptions upon which fluid inclusion geothermobarometry is based 1. Once sealed. The fluid trapped upon sealing of the inclusion was a single. The cavity in which the fluid is trapped does not change in volume after sealing. homogeneous phase. The effect of pressure are insignificant 5. The origin of the inclusion is known . 3.

Data available from fluid inclusions  Temperature  Pressure (depth)  Fluid composition  Fluid density  Evolution of all of the above with time .

calcite. Halite etc. fluorite.  .Temporal classification of fluid inclusions  Primary  Secondary  Pseudosecondary Commonly occurs in trasparant minerals : Quartz. anhydrite.

Fluid inclusions classification .

How big are fluid inclusions ?  > mm are rare (museum specimens)  < 2 m are not usable for micro thermometry  3 – 50 m most common size range for micro thermometry .

Fluid Inclusion Microscope Liquid Nitrogen containe r Heate r Unit Camera to Monitor .

Classification of inclusions based on room temperature phase ratios Single-phase inclusions  Two-phase inclusions    Liquid-rich Vapor-rich Halite-bearing inclusions  CO2-bearing inclusions  Hydrocarbon inclusions  Melt inclusions  Multi-phase inclusions  .



Inclusion terminology  Homegenization temperature (Th)  Isochore  Eutectic (first-melting) temperature (Te)  Freezing (melting) temperature (Tm)  NaCl-equivalent salinity .

Tm Th .

Homegenization temperature (Th) .

Eutectic (first-melting) temperature (Te) and Freezing (melting) temperature (Tm) .

Photograph of Fluid Inclusion .

e . i. i. 1 m o n t h a ft e r d r i llin g c o m p le t io n n=37 n=34 n= 15 B o i l in g p o in t c u r v e f o r p u r e w a t e r n=15 n= 14 n=43 .1 t a k e n o n 2 4 N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 6 .T E M P E R A T U R E (° C ) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d te m p e r a tu re o f w e ll D R J S .1 n=39 200 3 0 0 °C D e p th in f e e t D e p th in m e t e rs 100 n=67 n=13 D e p th in fe e t D e p th in m e te r s n=20 Keys : n=10 H is to g r a m s : N u m b e r o f m e a s u r e m e n ts S e c o n d a ry f l u i d in c lu s io n s L a t e d e p o s it e d n=30 P rim a r y f l u i d in c lu s i o n s E a r ly d e p o s i t e d H o s t m in e r a ls : n=15 A n h y d rite C a lc ite n=4 Q u a r tz P r e h n it e C u rv e s : D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d t e m p e r a t u r e o f D R J S . e . 2 d a y s a f t e r d r i llin g c o m p le t io n n=39 D o w n h o le m e a s u r e d t e m p e r a t u r e o f D R J S .1 t a k e n o n 2 4 O c t o b e r 1 9 9 6 .

Harvey •website di internet. PSDG 2012 •Fluid Inclusions Workshop@MFR 2014 •Water-Rock Interaction. Colin C. Alteration Minerals and Mineral Geothermometry. .Reference: •Bimbingan teknis pengembangan sumber daya panas bumi.