The neglected reading goal

Adapted from materials of Drs. Joan Erickson and Guy Trainin

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Fluency is the ability to read:
accurately quickly smoothly naturally expressively in syntactical units with phrasing

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It is the ability to read that appears fairly automatic and effortless.

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Fluent readers are better able to devote their attention to comprehending text
LaBerge and Samuels, 1974 National Reading Panel, 2000

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Students who experience reading difficulties are often dis-fluent
Johns and Berglund, 2002 National Reading Panel, 2000 Pinnell et al., 1995

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When we become fluent at a particular task, we can devote our attention to other related task. In the case of fluency, once we become more automatic readers, we can devote our attention to comprehension.

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Educators believe that word recognition naturally lead to fluent reading. Teachers received little (if any) training in the topic of fluency. There isn¶t a clear concept of what fluency is.

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Fluency instruction begins when students can read connected text with 90% or better accuracy (usually by the middle of first grade) If a student misses more than 10% of the words in a passage, then the material is too difficult to use for instruction

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One Minute Reading
Total Number of Words Read Example: If a student reads 66 words and has 8 errors, the student reads 58 words correct per minute

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Number of Errors Words Correct Per Minute (wcpm)

Always encourage students to do their best reading and not their fastest reading

Fall First Grade* Second Grade** Third Grade** Fourth Grade** Fifth Grade** 37-76 53-82 79-107 99-125 105-126

Winter 42-90 78-106 93-123 112-133 118-143

Spring 56-105 94-124 114-142 118-143 128-151

*Forman & Saunders, 1998 **Hasbrouck and Tindal, 1992)

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Student recognizes most of the words automatically Little or no attention is required to identify words Some miscues will occur
Mispronunciations Omissions Insertions

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Correct number of words read

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Total number of words read

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Percent accuracy

49 ÷ 51 = (.96) 96% (Independent level)

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develop instant, efficient word recognition (automaticity) practice repeated reading of texts receive feedback and guidance from others
Johns and Berglund, 2002

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Match students¶ reading abilities to appropriate materials Model oral reading Provide guided oral reading opportunities Offer daily opportunities for students to read easy materials independently
Johns and Berglund, 2002

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High Frequency Words Readers Theater Echo and Choral Reading Phrase Boundaries Paired Reading Repeated Reading Computer Based/Tape Assisted Reading

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Some students have developed accurate word pronunciation skills but read slowly Decoding is not automatic or fluent, and their limited fluency may affect performance
They read less text than peers and have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text They expend more cognitive energy than peers trying to identify individual words They may be less able to retain text in their memories and less likely to integrate those segments with other parts of the text

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Fluency instruction for ELL students involves:
x listening to models x repeated readings x choral reading x partner reading

Students with disabilities benefit from:

repeated reading practice, especially in expository or informational texts more time on task paired reading and rereading additional feedback and progress monitoring

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(b) (c) (d)

The authors reviewed studies that tried improve the fluency of struggling readers. They found that: fluency instruction is generally effective, although it is unclear whether this is because of specific instructional features or because it involves children in reading increased amounts of text; assisted approaches seem to be more effective than unassisted approaches; repetitive approaches do not seem to hold a clear advantage over non-repetitive approaches; and effective fluency instruction moves beyond automatic word recognition to include rhythm and expression, or what linguists refer to as the prosodic features of language.

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