You are on page 1of 78

Manufacturing Engineering Technology in SI Units,

6th Edition

Chapter 23:
Machining Processes: Turning and Hole
Making
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Introduction
The Turning Process
Lathes and Lathe Operations
Boring and Boring Machines
Drilling, Drills, and Drilling Machines
Reaming and Reamers
Tapping and Taps

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Introduction

Machining processes has the capability of producing


parts that are round in shape
Such as miniature screws for the hinges of eyeglass
frames and turbine shafts for hydroelectric power plants
Most basic machining processes is turning where part
is rotated while it is being machined
Turning processes are carried out on a lathe or by
similar machine tools
Highly versatile and produce a wide variety of shapes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Introduction

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Introduction

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Introduction

1.

2.
3.

Turning is performed at various:


Rotational speeds, N, of the workpiece clamped in a
spindle
Depths of cut, d
Feeds, f, depending on the workpiece materials,
cutting-tool materials, surface finish, dimensional
accuracy and characteristics of the machine tool

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process

Majority of turning operations use simple single-point


cutting tools, which is a right-hand cutting tool
Important process parameters have a direct influence
on machining processes and optimized productivity

Tool Geometry

Rake angle control both the direction of chip flow and


the strength of the tool tip

Side rake angle controls the direction of chip flow

Cutting-edge angle affects chip formation, tool


strength and cutting forces
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Tool Geometry

Relief angle controls interference and rubbing at the


toolworkpiece interface

Nose radius affects surface finish and tool-tip strength

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Tool Geometry

Material-removal Rate

The material-removal rate (MRR) is the volume of


material removed per unit time (mm 3/min)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Material-removal Rate
D0 D f

The average diameter of the ring is Davg


2

Since there are N revolutions per minute, the removal


rate is
MMR Davg dfN or reduce to MMR dfV

Since the distance traveled is l mm, the cutting time is


l
t
fN

The cutting time does not include the time required for
tool approach and retraction
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Material-removal Rate

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Forces in Turning

The 3 principal forces acting on a cutting tool are


important in the design of machine tools, deflection of
tools and workpieces for precision-machining
operations

Cutting force acts downward on the tool tip and deflect


the tool downward and the workpiece upward

Thrust force (or feed force) acts in the longitudinal


direction

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Roughing and Finishing Cuts

First practice is to have one or more roughing cuts at


high feed rates and large depths of cut

Little consideration for dimensional tolerance and


surface roughness

Followed by a finishing cut, at a lower feed and depth


of cut for good surface finish

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Tool Materials, Feeds, and Cutting Speeds

The range of applicable cutting speeds and feeds for a


variety of tool materials is shown

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Tool Materials, Feeds, and Cutting Speeds

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Tool Materials, Feeds, and Cutting Speeds

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Cutting Fluids

Recommendations for cutting fluids appropriate to


various workpiece materials

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


EXAMPLE 23.1
Material-removal Rate and Cutting Force in Turning
A 150-mm-long, 12.5-mm-diameter 304 stainless steel rod
is being reduced in diameter to 12.0 mm by turning on a
lathe. The spindle rotates at N 400 rpm, and the tool is
travelling at an axial speed of 200 mm/min. Calculate the
cutting speed, material-removal rate, cutting time, power
dissipated, and cutting force.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Solution
Material-removal Rate and Cutting Force in Turning
The maximum cutting speed is
12.5 400
V D0 N
15.7 m/min
1000

The cutting speed at the machined diameter is


12.0 400
V D0 N
15.1 m/min
1000
12.5 12.0
0.25 mm
The depth of cut is d
2
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Solution
Material-removal Rate and Cutting Force in Turning
200
0.5 mm/rev
The feed is f
400

The material-removal rate is


MMR 12.25 0.25 0.5 400 1924 mm 3 /min 2 10 6 m 3 /min

The actual time to cut is


150
t
0.75 mm
0.5 400
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

The Turning Process


Solution
Material-removal Rate and Cutting Force in Turning
The power dissipated is

41924
Power
128 W
60

Since W=60 Nm/min, power dissipated is 7680 N m/min.


Also, power is the product of torque:
T

7680
3.1 Nm
2 400

3.11000 506 N
T

F
D
2
F

c avg
Since
, we have c
12.25Copyright
/ 2 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations

Lathes are considered to be the oldest machine tools


Speeds may range from moderate to high speed
machining
Simple and versatile
But requires a skilled machinist
Lathes are inefficient for repetitive operations and for
large production runs

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:
Bed
Lathe
Components

Supports all major components of the lathe

Carriage

Slides along the ways and consists of an assembly of


the cross-slide, tool post, and apron
Headstock

Equipped with motors, pulleys, and V-belts that supply


power to a spindle at various rotational speeds
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:
Tailstock
Lathe
Components

Slide along the ways and be clamped at any position,


supports the other end of the workpiece

Feed Rod and Lead Screw

Powered by a set of gears through the headstock


Lathe Specifications
1.
Max diameter of the workpiece that can be machined
2.
Max distance between the headstock and tailstock
centers
3.
Length of the bed
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:
Lathe Specifications
Lathe
Components

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Workholding Devices and
Accessories

Workholding devices must hold the workpiece securely


Chuck is equipped with three or four jaws
Three-jaw chucks used for round workpieces
Four-jaw (independent) chucks used for square,
rectangular, or odd-shaped workpieces
Power chucks are used in automated equipment for
high production rates
Chuck selection depends on the type and speed of
operation, workpiece size, production and dimensional
accuracy requirements and the jaw forces required

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Workholding Devices and
Accessories

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Workholding Devices and
Accessories

A collet is a longitudinally-split, tapered bushing


Used for round workpieces and shapes like square or
hexagonal
It can grips the entire circumference of the part,
suitable for parts with small cross sections
Face plates are used for clamping irregularly shaped
workpieces
Mandrels used to hold workpieces that require
machining on both ends or on their cylindrical surfaces

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:
Lathe
Operations
Cutting tool
removes material by travelling along the

bed
Facing operations are done by moving the tool radially
with the cross-slide and clamping the carriage for better
dimensional accuracy
Form tools are used to produce various shapes on
solid, round workpieces by moving the tool radially
inward while the part is rotating
Boring on a lathe is similar to turning
Drilling can be performed on a lathe by mounting the
drill bit in a chuck in the tailstock quill
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
Bench Lathes

Have low power, operated by hand feed, and are used


to machine small workpieces

Special-purpose Lathes

Used for applications such as railroad wheels, gun


barrels, and rolling-mill rolls
Tracer Lathes

Cutting tool follows a path that duplicates the contour of


a template
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
Automatic Lathes

For fully automatic lathe, parts are fed and removed


automatically
For semiautomatic machines, functions are performed
by the operator

Automatic Bar Machines

Designed for high-production-rate machining of screws


and similar threaded parts

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
Turret Lathesof Lathes

Perform multiple cutting operations, such as turning,


boring, drilling, thread cutting, and facing

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
Computer-controlled
Lathes

Movement and control of the machine tool and its


components can be achieved

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
Computer-controlled
Lathes

Each turret is equipped with a variety of tools and


performs several operations on different surfaces of the
workpiece

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
EXAMPLE 23.2
Typical Parts Made on CNC Turning Machine Tools
The capabilities of CNC turning-machine tools are
illustrated as shown. The material and number of cutting
tools used and the machining times are indicated for each
part. These parts also can be made on manual or turret
lathes, although not as effectively or consistently.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
EXAMPLE 23.2
Typical Parts Made on CNC Turning Machine Tools

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
EXAMPLE 23.3
Machining of Complex Shapes
The capabilities of CNC turning are shown

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Types
of Lathes
EXAMPLE 23.3
Machining of Complex Shapes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Turning-process
Relative production rates in turning are important on
productivity in machining operations
Capabilities

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Turning-process
High-removal-rate machining has two requirements: (a)
high machine tool and (b) high power
Capabilities
The surface finish and dimensional accuracy depend

on the characteristics of the machine tool, stiffness,


vibration and chatter, process parameters, tool
geometry and wear, the use of cutting fluids, the
machinability of the workpiece material, and operator
skill

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Turning-process
Capabilities

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe


Operations:

Turning-process
Capabilities

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Design Considerations and Guidelines for Turning
Operations

1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

General design guidelines:


Parts should be designed to be fixtured and clamped
easily into work-holding devices
Dimensional accuracy and surface finish should be as
wide as permissible for the part to still function properly
Sharp corners should be avoided
Blanks should be as close to final dimensions as
possible
Parts should be designed so that cutting tools can
travel across the workpiece without obstruction
Design features should be commercially available
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Design Considerations and Guidelines for Turning
Operations

Guidelines for Turning Operations

Some guidelines have to be implemented on a trialand-error basis:


1.
Minimize tool overhang
2.
Support the workpiece rigidly
3.
Use machine tools with high stiffness and high damping
capacity
4.
When tools begin to vibrate and chatter, modify one or
more of the process parameters

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:


Chip Collection Systems

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Chips produced during machining must be collected


and disposed properly
Chip management involves collecting chips from their
source in the machine tool in an efficient manner and
removing them from the work area
Chips can be collected by:
Gravity drop
Dragging the chips from a settling tank
Using augers with feed screws
Using magnetic conveyors
Employing vacuum methods of chip removal
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:

Cutting Screw Threads

Screw thread defined as a ridge of uniform cross


section that follows a helical or spiral path on the
outside or inside of a cylindrical (straight thread) or
tapered surface (tapered thread)
Threads can be machined externally or internally with a
cutting tool called thread cutting or threading

Screw-thread Cutting on a Lathe

The cutting tool, the shape depends on the type of


thread to be cut

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:

Cutting Screw Threads


Screw-thread Cutting on a Lathe

A number of passes are required to produce threads


with good dimensional accuracy and surface finish

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:

Cutting Screw Threads


Screw-thread Cutting on a Lathe

The production rate in cutting screw threads can be


increased with tools called die-head chasers

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Lathes and Lathe Operations:

Cutting Screw Threads


Design Considerations for Screw Thread Machining

Design considerations must be taken into account:


1.
Designs should allow for the termination of threads
2.
Attempts should be made to eliminate shallow, blind
tapped holes
3.
Chamfers should be specified at the ends of threaded
sections
4.
Threaded sections should not be interrupted
5.
Standard threading tooling and inserts should be used
6.
Thin-walled parts should have sufficient thickness and
strength
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Boring and Boring Machines

The cutting tools are mounted on a boring bar to reach


the full length of the bore
Boring bars have been designed and built with
capabilities for damping vibration
Large workpieces are machined on boring mills

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Boring and Boring Machines

In horizontal boring machines, the workpiece is


mounted on a table that can move horizontally in both
the axial and radial directions
A vertical boring mill is similar to a lathe, has a
vertical axis of workpiece rotation

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Boring and Boring Machines


Design Considerations for Boring:
1.
Through holes should be specified
2.
Greater the length-to-bore-diameter ratio, the more
difficult it is to hold dimensions
3.
Interrupted internal surfaces should be avoided

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines

Holes are used for assembly with fasteners, for design


purposes or for appearance
Hole making is the most important operations in
manufacturing
Drilling is a major and common hole-making process

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills

Drills have high length-to-diameter ratios, capable of


producing deep holes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills

Drills are flexible and should be used with care in order


to drill holes accurately and to prevent breakage
Drills leave a burr on the bottom surface upon
breakthrough, necessitating deburring operations

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills
Twist Drill

The most common drill is the conventional standardpoint twist drill

The geometry of the drill point is such that the normal


rake angle and velocity of the cutting edge vary with the
distance from the center of the drill

Main features of this drill are:


1.
Point angle
2.
Lip-relief angle
3.
Chiseledge angle
4.
Helix angle
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills
Twist Drill

Drills are available with a chip-breaker feature ground


along the cutting edges

Other drill-point geometries have been developed to


improve drill performance and increase the penetration
rate
Other Types of Drills

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills
Gun Drilling

Gun drilling is used for drilling deep holes and requires


a special drill

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines: Drills
Trepanning

The cutting tool produces a hole by removing a diskshaped piece (core) from flat plates

Trepanning can be carried out on lathes, drill presses,


or other machine tools using single-point or multipoint
tools

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Material-removal
Rate
inis the
The material-removal rate (MRR)
in drilling
volume of material removed per unit time
Drilling

D 2
fN
MMR
4

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Thrust
Force
and Torque
Thrust force
acts perpendicular
to the hole axis

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Excessive thrust force can cause the drill to break,


distort the workpiece and cause the workpiece to slip
into the workholding fixture
The thrust force depends on:
Strength of the workpiece material
Feed
Rotational speed
Drill diameter
Drill geometry
Cutting fluid
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Thrust
Force and Torque
Torque

A knowledge of the torque in drilling is essential for


estimating the power requirement
Due to many factors involved, it is difficult to calculate
Torque can be estimated from the data table

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Thrust
Force and Torque
EXAMPLE 23.4
Material-removal Rate and Torque in Drilling
A hole is being drilled in a block of magnesium alloy with a
10-mm drill bit at a feed of 0.2 mm/rev and with the spindle
running at N = 800 rpm. Calculate the material-removal
rate and the torque on the drill.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Thrust
Force and Torque
Solution
Material-removal Rate and Torque in Drilling
The material-removal rate is
(10) 2
(0.2)(800) 12,570 mm 3 / min 210 mm3 /s
MMR
4

The power required is Power 210 0.5 105 W


105
1.25 Nm
The torque is T
83.8

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drill
Materials
and
Sizes
Drills are
made of high-speed
steels
and solid carbides

1.
2.
3.
4.

or with carbide tips


Drills are coated with titanium nitride or titanium carbon
nitride for increased wear resistance
Standard twist-drill sizes consist of:
Numerical
Letter
Fractional
Millimeter

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Practice
Drill does not
have a centering action, tends to walk

on the workpiece surface at the beginning of the


operation
A small starting hole can be made with a center drill
before drilling
Or the drill point may be ground to an S shape which
has a self-centering characteristic and produces
accurate holes with improved drill life

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Practice
Drilling Recommendations

The speed is the surface speed of the drill at its


periphery

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Practice
Drilling Recommendations

The feed in drilling is the distance the drill travels into


the workpiece per revolution
Chip removal during drilling can be difficult for deep
holes in soft and ductile workpiece materials

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Practice
Drill Reconditioning

Drills are reconditioned by grinding them either


manually or with special fixtures
Hand grinding is difficult and requires considerable skill
in order to produce symmetric cutting edges
Grinding on fixtures is accurate and is done on special
computer controlled grinders

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Practice
Measuring Drill
Life

Drill life is measured by the number of holes drilled


before they become dull and need to be re-worked or
replaced
Drill life is defined as the number of holes drilled until
this transition begins

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
Machines
Drilling machines
are used for drilling holes, tapping,

reaming and small-diameter boring operations


The most common machine is the drill press

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Drilling
The types ofMachines
drilling machines range from simple bench

type drills to large radial drills


The drill head of universal drilling machines can be
swiveled to drill holes at an angle
Numerically controlled three-axis
drilling machines are automate
in the desired sequence
using turret
Drilling machines with multiple
spindles (gang drilling) are
used for high-production-rate
operations
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Drilling, Drills, and Drilling


Machines:
Design
Considerations
for
Basic design
guidelines:
Drilling
Designs should allow holes to be drilled on flat surfaces

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

and perpendicular to the drill motion


Interrupted hole surfaces should be avoided
Hole bottoms should match standard drill-point angles
Through holes are preferred over blind holes
Dimples should be provided
Parts should be designed with a minimum of fixturing
Blind holes must be drilled deeper

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Reaming and Reamers

1.
2.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Reaming is an operation used to:


Make existing hole dimensionally more accurate
Improve surface finish
Most accurate holes in workpieces are produced by:
Centering
Drilling
Boring
Reaming
For even better accuracy and surface finish, holes may
be burnished or internally ground and honed
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Reaming and Reamers

Hand reamers have a tapered end in the first third of


their length
Machine reamers are available in two types: Rose
reamers and Fluted reamers
Shell reamers are used for holes larger than 20 mm
Expansion reamers are adjustable for small variations
in hole size
Adjustable reamers can be set for specific hole
diameters and therefore are versatile

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Tapping and Taps

Internal threads in workpieces can be produced by


tapping
A tap is a chip-producing threading tool with multiple
cutting teeth
Tapered taps are designed to reduce the torque
required for the tapping of through holes
Bottoming taps are for tapping blind holes to their full
depth
Collapsible taps are used
in large-diameter holes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Tapping and Taps

1.
2.
3.
4.

Tapping may be done by hand or with machines:


Drilling machines
Lathes
Automatic screw machines
Vertical CNC milling machines
One system for the automatic tapping of nuts is shown

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Tapping and Taps


CASE STUDY 23.1
Bone Screw Retainer

A cervical spine implant

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd