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CONCEPTS TO FAILURE PREDICTION FOR LOADING STATIC IN DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS

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design process, and it is by thinking

in terms of obviating failure that

successful designs are achieved.

Henry Petroski, Design Paradigms

The liberty bell, a classic case of brittle

fracture. ( R-F Website/Corbis)

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Tension

Stress concentration factor:

Hole in plate:

Sharp crack:

Figure 6.1: Rectangular plate with hole subjected

to axial load. (a) Plate with cross-sectional plane.

(b) Half of plate showing stress distribution. (c)

Plate with elliptical hole subjected to axial load.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.2: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (a)

Axial load and pin-loaded hole.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.2: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (b)

bending.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.3: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (a) Axial

load

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.3: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (b) bending.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.4: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (a) Axial

load.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.4: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (a) Axial

load; (b) bending.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

factors for round bar with fillet.

(a) Axial load; (b) bending; (c)

torsion.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

round bar with groove. (a) Axial load; (b)

bending; (c) torsion.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.7: Stress concentration factors for round bar with a flat groove. (a)

Bending;

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.7: Stress concentration factors for round bar with a flat groove. (b)

torsion;

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.8: Stress concentration factors for round bar with hole.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Stress Contours

Figure 6.9: Axially loaded flat plate with fillet showing stress contours: (a) square

corners, (b) rounded corners, (c) small grooves, and (d) small holes.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Three forms of crack growth:

1. Mode I opening. The opening (or tensile) mode,

shown in Fig. 6.10a, is the most often encountered

mode of crack propagation. The crack faces separate

symmetrically with respect to the crack plane.

2. Mode II sliding. The sliding (or in-plane shearing)

mode occurs when the crack faces slide relative to

each other symmetrically with respect to the normal

to the crack plane but asymmetrically with respect

to the crack plane, as shown in Fig. 6.10b.

3. Mode III tearing. The tearing (or antiplane) mode

occurs when the crack faces slide asymmetrically

with respect to both the crack plane and its normal,

as illustrated in Fig. 6.10c.

Figure 6.10: Three modes of crack

displacement. (a) Mode I, opening; (b)

Mode II, sliding, (c) Mode III, tearing.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

for Various Materials

Material

Metals

Aluminum alloys

2014-T4

2024-T3

2024-T351

7075-T651

7079-T651

Steels

4340 tempered at 260 C

4340 tempered at 425 C

D6AC, tempered at 540 C

A538

Titanium alloys

Ti-6Al-4V

Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al

Ti-6Al-6V-2S

Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Z-6Mo

Ceramics

Aluminum oxide

Silicon nitride

Silicon carbide

Soda-lime glass

Concrete

Polymers

Polymethyl methacrylate

Polystyrene

Polycarbonate

Polyvinyl chloride

Yield Strength,Sy

ksi

MPa

Fracturetoughness, K I c

ksi in

MPa m

65

57

47

73

68

450

390

325

505

470

26

31

33

26

30

29

34

36

29

33

238

206

217

250

1640

1420

1495

1722

45.8

80.0

93

100

50.0

87.4

102

111

119

164

157

171

820

1130

1080

1180

96

25

34

24

106

27

37

26

2.7-4.8

3.5-7

1.8-4.5

0.64-0.73

0.18-1.27

3.0-5.3

4-8

2-5

0.7-0.8

0.2-1.4

3-7

4.5-11.5

8.5-10

5.8-7

20-50

30-80

60-70

40-50

0.9-2.7

0.9-1.8

2.3-2.7

1.8-2.7

1-3

1-2

2.5-3

2-3

Fracture toughness:

fracture toughness data for

selected engineering

materials at room

temperature. Source: From

ASM International [1989]

and Bowman [2004].

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Mechanics Applied to Design

1. Given a candidate material, obtain its fracture toughness. See Table 6.1 for

selected materials, or else find the value in the technical literature or from

experiments.

2. The dimensionless correction factor for the part geometry, Y, can be obtained

from Appendix C for common design situations.

3. Equation (6.6) allows calculation of allowable stress as a function of semi-crack

length, a; similarly, the largest allowable crack (with length 2a) can be determined

from the required stress.

4. If design criteria cannot be met, the following alternatives can be pursued:

a. Increasing the part thickness will reduce the nominal stress, nom.

b. A different material with a higher fracture toughness can be selected.

c. Local reinforcement of critical areas can be pursued, such as locally

increasing thickness.

d. The manufacturing process can have a significant impact on the initial flaw

size. The class of operations (casting versus forging, compression molding

versus extrusion, etc.), quality control procedures, and quality of incoming

material are all important factors.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.

2014 CRC Press

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Yield Locus

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Mathematical statement:

maximum-shear-stress theory (MSST) for

biaxial stress state (z = 0).

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Distortion-Energy Theory

Statement:

distortion-energy theory (DET) for biaxial

stress state (z = 0).

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Example 6.6

suspension used in Example 6.6.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Example 6.7

Figure 6.15: Cantilevered, round bar with torsion applied to free end (used in

Example 6.7). (a) Bar with coordinates and load; (b) stresses acting on an element; (c)

Mohr's circle representation of stresses.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Example 6.8

Figure 6.16: Cantilevered, round bar with torsion and transverse force applied to free

end (used in Example 6.8). (a) Bar with coordinates and loads; (b) stresses acting on

element at top of bar and at wall; (c) Mohr's circle representation of stresses.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Failure will occur if:

or:

of maximum-normal-stress theory

(MNST) for a biaxial stress state (z =

0).

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Theories

Internal Friction Theory:

If 1 > 0 and 3 < 0,

If 3 > 0,

And if 1 < 0,

theory and modified Mohr theory

for failure prediction of brittle

materials.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Experimental Verification

Figure 6.19: Experimental verification of yield and fracture criteria for several

materials. (a) Brittle fracture. (b) Ductile yielding. Source: From Dowling [1993] and

Murphy [1964].

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Example 6.10

Part

a)

b)

c)

Criterion

MSST

DET

MSST

DET

IFT

MMT

Equation used

(6.7)

(6.10)

(6.7)

(6.10)

(6.14)

(6.17)

Safety factor

1.5

1.73

1.28

1.33

1.61

1.69

Table 6.2: Safety factors from using different criteria for three different materials

used in Example 6.10.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Given a material, where the tensile and compressive yield, ultimate and/or

fracture stresses are known, the following steps can be used to help select a

failure criterion:

1. For a ductile metal, where the strength is the same in tension and

compression, use either the MSST or DET. These criteria are fairly close,

with the largest difference of 15% occurring for pure shear in a plane stress

loading. The MSST is more conservative; that is, it predicts yielding at a

lower stress level than DET.

2. If a ductile metal has a different strength in compression than in tension,

such as with certain magnesium alloys, the IFT or MMT are reasonable

options.

3. Brittle materials are difficult to analyze using failure criteria, and confidence

in strength values is difficult to obtain. However, the IFT leads to good

results without the mathematical complication of the MMT.

4. For circumstances where improved performance is required, MMT may be

justified over the IFT.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Figure 6.20: (a) Schematic illustration of a portion of a total hip replacement with

selected dimensions; (b) idealized geometry used to estimate the stress concentration

factor at the fillet. Source: Courtesy of T. Hershberger, Biomet, Inc.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

Analysis

Figure 6.21: Example of a finite element mesh to capture the value of a stress

concentration corresponding to Fig. 6.2. Only one-fourth of the problem has been

discretized to take advantage of symmetry. Note the large number of elements located

near the stress raiser. Boundary conditions and applied loads have been added for image

clarity.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

distribution. The left image shows a conventional profile where load per tooth varies

widely, and the right shows a Spiralock profile with more uniform stresses on each

tooth. Source: Courtesy of Spiralock Corp.

Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

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