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Chapter 6: Failure Prediction

for Static Loading

The concept of failure is central to the


design process, and it is by thinking
in terms of obviating failure that
successful designs are achieved.
Henry Petroski, Design Paradigms
The liberty bell, a classic case of brittle
fracture. ( R-F Website/Corbis)

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Plate with Hole in


Tension
Stress concentration factor:

Hole in plate:

Sharp crack:
Figure 6.1: Rectangular plate with hole subjected
to axial load. (a) Plate with cross-sectional plane.
(b) Half of plate showing stress distribution. (c)
Plate with elliptical hole subjected to axial load.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Rectangular Plate with Hole

Figure 6.2: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (a)
Axial load and pin-loaded hole.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Rectangular Plate with Hole

Figure 6.2: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with central hole. (b)
bending.

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Rectangular Plate with Fillet

Figure 6.3: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (a) Axial
load

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Rectangular Plate with Fillet

Figure 6.3: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with fillet. (b) bending.

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Rectangular Plate with Groove

Figure 6.4: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (a) Axial
load.

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Rectangular Plate with Groove

Figure 6.4: Stress concentration factors for rectangular plate with groove. (a) Axial
load; (b) bending.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Round Bar with Fillet

Figure 6.5: Stress concentration


factors for round bar with fillet.
(a) Axial load; (b) bending; (c)
torsion.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Round Bar with Groove

Figure 6.6: Stress concentration factors for


round bar with groove. (a) Axial load; (b)
bending; (c) torsion.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Round Bar with Flat Groove

Figure 6.7: Stress concentration factors for round bar with a flat groove. (a)
Bending;

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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Round Bar with Flat Groove

Figure 6.7: Stress concentration factors for round bar with a flat groove. (b)
torsion;

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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Round Bar with Hole

Figure 6.8: Stress concentration factors for round bar with hole.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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Stress Contours

Figure 6.9: Axially loaded flat plate with fillet showing stress contours: (a) square
corners, (b) rounded corners, (c) small grooves, and (d) small holes.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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Modes of Crack Displacement


Three forms of crack growth:
1. Mode I opening. The opening (or tensile) mode,
shown in Fig. 6.10a, is the most often encountered
mode of crack propagation. The crack faces separate
symmetrically with respect to the crack plane.
2. Mode II sliding. The sliding (or in-plane shearing)
mode occurs when the crack faces slide relative to
each other symmetrically with respect to the normal
to the crack plane but asymmetrically with respect
to the crack plane, as shown in Fig. 6.10b.
3. Mode III tearing. The tearing (or antiplane) mode
occurs when the crack faces slide asymmetrically
with respect to both the crack plane and its normal,
as illustrated in Fig. 6.10c.
Figure 6.10: Three modes of crack
displacement. (a) Mode I, opening; (b)
Mode II, sliding, (c) Mode III, tearing.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Yield Strength and Fracture Toughness


for Various Materials
Material
Metals
Aluminum alloys
2014-T4
2024-T3
2024-T351
7075-T651
7079-T651
Steels
4340 tempered at 260 C
4340 tempered at 425 C
D6AC, tempered at 540 C
A538
Titanium alloys
Ti-6Al-4V
Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al
Ti-6Al-6V-2S
Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Z-6Mo
Ceramics
Aluminum oxide
Silicon nitride
Silicon carbide
Soda-lime glass
Concrete
Polymers
Polymethyl methacrylate
Polystyrene
Polycarbonate
Polyvinyl chloride

Yield Strength,Sy
ksi
MPa

Fracturetoughness, K I c
ksi in
MPa m

65
57
47
73
68

450
390
325
505
470

26
31
33
26
30

29
34
36
29
33

238
206
217
250

1640
1420
1495
1722

45.8
80.0
93
100

50.0
87.4
102
111

119
164
157
171

820
1130
1080
1180

96
25
34
24

106
27
37
26

2.7-4.8
3.5-7
1.8-4.5
0.64-0.73
0.18-1.27

3.0-5.3
4-8
2-5
0.7-0.8
0.2-1.4

3-7
4.5-11.5
8.5-10
5.8-7

20-50
30-80
60-70
40-50

0.9-2.7
0.9-1.8
2.3-2.7
1.8-2.7

1-3
1-2
2.5-3
2-3

Fracture toughness:

Table 6.1:Yield stress and


fracture toughness data for
selected engineering
materials at room
temperature. Source: From
ASM International [1989]
and Bowman [2004].

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Design Procedure 6.1: Fracture


Mechanics Applied to Design
1. Given a candidate material, obtain its fracture toughness. See Table 6.1 for
selected materials, or else find the value in the technical literature or from
experiments.
2. The dimensionless correction factor for the part geometry, Y, can be obtained
from Appendix C for common design situations.
3. Equation (6.6) allows calculation of allowable stress as a function of semi-crack
length, a; similarly, the largest allowable crack (with length 2a) can be determined
from the required stress.
4. If design criteria cannot be met, the following alternatives can be pursued:
a. Increasing the part thickness will reduce the nominal stress, nom.
b. A different material with a higher fracture toughness can be selected.
c. Local reinforcement of critical areas can be pursued, such as locally
increasing thickness.
d. The manufacturing process can have a significant impact on the initial flaw
size. The class of operations (casting versus forging, compression molding
versus extrusion, etc.), quality control procedures, and quality of incoming
material are all important factors.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.
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Yield Locus

Figure 6.11: Three-dimensional yield locus for MSST and DET.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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Maximum Shear Stress Theory


Mathematical statement:

Figure 6.12: Graphical representation of


maximum-shear-stress theory (MSST) for
biaxial stress state (z = 0).

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Distortion-Energy Theory
Statement:

In biaxial stress state:

Equivalent or von Mises stress:

Figure 6.13: Graphical representation of


distortion-energy theory (DET) for biaxial
stress state (z = 0).

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Example 6.6

Figure 6.14: Rear wheel


suspension used in Example 6.6.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Example 6.7

Figure 6.15: Cantilevered, round bar with torsion applied to free end (used in
Example 6.7). (a) Bar with coordinates and load; (b) stresses acting on an element; (c)
Mohr's circle representation of stresses.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Example 6.8

Figure 6.16: Cantilevered, round bar with torsion and transverse force applied to free
end (used in Example 6.8). (a) Bar with coordinates and loads; (b) stresses acting on
element at top of bar and at wall; (c) Mohr's circle representation of stresses.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Maximum Normal Stress Theory


Failure will occur if:

or:

Figure 6.17: Graphical representation


of maximum-normal-stress theory
(MNST) for a biaxial stress state (z =
0).

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Internal Friction and Modified Mohr


Theories
Internal Friction Theory:
If 1 > 0 and 3 < 0,

If 3 > 0,
And if 1 < 0,

Figure 6.18: Internal friction


theory and modified Mohr theory
for failure prediction of brittle
materials.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Experimental Verification

Figure 6.19: Experimental verification of yield and fracture criteria for several
materials. (a) Brittle fracture. (b) Ductile yielding. Source: From Dowling [1993] and
Murphy [1964].

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Example 6.10
Part
a)
b)
c)

Criterion
MSST
DET
MSST
DET
IFT
MMT

Equation used
(6.7)
(6.10)
(6.7)
(6.10)
(6.14)
(6.17)

Safety factor
1.5
1.73
1.28
1.33
1.61
1.69

Table 6.2: Safety factors from using different criteria for three different materials
used in Example 6.10.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Case Study 6.2: Selecting Failure Criteria


Given a material, where the tensile and compressive yield, ultimate and/or
fracture stresses are known, the following steps can be used to help select a
failure criterion:
1. For a ductile metal, where the strength is the same in tension and
compression, use either the MSST or DET. These criteria are fairly close,
with the largest difference of 15% occurring for pure shear in a plane stress
loading. The MSST is more conservative; that is, it predicts yielding at a
lower stress level than DET.
2. If a ductile metal has a different strength in compression than in tension,
such as with certain magnesium alloys, the IFT or MMT are reasonable
options.
3. Brittle materials are difficult to analyze using failure criteria, and confidence
in strength values is difficult to obtain. However, the IFT leads to good
results without the mathematical complication of the MMT.
4. For circumstances where improved performance is required, MMT may be
justified over the IFT.
Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.
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2014 CRC Press

Artificial Hip Stress Concentration

Figure 6.20: (a) Schematic illustration of a portion of a total hip replacement with
selected dimensions; (b) idealized geometry used to estimate the stress concentration
factor at the fillet. Source: Courtesy of T. Hershberger, Biomet, Inc.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


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2014 CRC Press

Stress Concentration by Finite Element


Analysis

Figure 6.21: Example of a finite element mesh to capture the value of a stress
concentration corresponding to Fig. 6.2. Only one-fourth of the problem has been
discretized to take advantage of symmetry. Note the large number of elements located
near the stress raiser. Boundary conditions and applied loads have been added for image
clarity.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press

Photoelastic Stress Visualization

Figure 6.22: Photoelastic comparison of threaded fastener profiles comparing load


distribution. The left image shows a conventional profile where load per tooth varies
widely, and the right shows a Spiralock profile with more uniform stresses on each
tooth. Source: Courtesy of Spiralock Corp.

Fundamentals of Machine Elements, 3rd ed.


Schmid, Hamrock and Jacobson

2014 CRC Press