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Knowledge and

Justification

What is Knowledge?

It is clear that knowledge


is a type of information.
Lets consider a variety of
examples to start to clarify
what exactly knowledge is

Informati
on
Data
Belief

Faith

Wisdom

Opinion

Knowled
ge

What are the differences between them?

Information something factual.


Data statistics that 95% of girls in 9th
class achieve A* grade.
Belief a child might have a belief in the
tooth fairy.
Faith - a religious person may think that
God exists despite never having seen him.
Opinion opinion is sometimes acceptable,
even though it is illegal in the country.
Wisdom I might think that the quote from
W.H. Auden is wise.
Knowledge I know that the current prime
minister is Mr N Modi.

What is the Difference Between Data, Information, and


Knowledge?

Data the discrete, objective


facts about events is the
essential
raw
material
needed for the creation of
information;
however,
it
cannot be used to make
decisions because it has no
meaning.
It lacks meaning because it

Data becomes information when we add


meaning .
We add meaning by providing a context
to the data. The context identifies the
purpose, and circumstance, that surround
the gathering of data; it removes
ambiguity. We can remove ambiguity in
a
variety
of
ways:
categorizing,
calculating, condensing, etc.
Information is helpful because it allows us
to answer the who, what, where,
when, and how many questions.

Good information is:


Accurate - conveys the true situation.
Timely - is available in time to make
decisions. Useable - is portrayed in common,
easily understood formats and displays.
Complete - provides all necessary data.
Precise - has the required level of detail.
In short, information helps us decide what to
do, not how to do it. The how requires
knowledge.

Knowledge is the data (facts), information,


and skills acquired through experience or
education.
The hallmark of knowledge is judgment: the
ability to make decisions or come to sensible
conclusions. Knowledge comprises not only
the ability to choose the appropriate course of
action, but also the skills to execute it.
Knowledge consists of facts, truths, and
beliefs, perspectives and concepts, judgments
and expectations, methodologies and knowhow.
Knowledge
is
accumulated
and
integrated and held over time to handle
specific situations and challenges.

Information vs Knowledge vs Wisdom


"Information" is "raw", i.e. un-acted upon by any receiver;
"Knowledge" is information acted upon cognitively, i.e.
transformed into some conceptual framework and hence
usable for other cognitive uses;
"Wisdom" is applied knowledge, i.e. knowledge along with
the common (or uncommon) sense to know when and how
to use it.
The interesting distinction is between knowledge and
wisdom. By this notion, "knowledge" connotes a solitary
action, capable of being taken in the abstract by any
one individual. The addition of wisdom implies the
addition of experience. Experience is a cumulative
matter; it may refer to an individual's own experience,
or to the collective experience of more than one
individual.