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Iron Ore Pig Iron Steel

Iron Ore + Coke + Limestone + Heat + Air
All these in a blast furnace = Smelting
Calcium in limestone + Silicates in Iron =
Forms Slag (top)
Liquid Iron collects at bottom Flows out into
a bed of sand
Once this cools This metal is PIG IRON
Pig Iron is 4 to 5% carbon / Hard / Brittle / Useless
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Iron Ore Pig Iron Steel

To do anything more with Pig Iron, we have 3
1. Melt pig Iron Mix with Slag Hammer it out to
eliminate carbon (down to 0.3%) Creates strong,
malleable Wrought iron
2. Melt Pig Iron, combine with scrap, smelt out impurities,
add alloys. Creates Cast Iron (2 to 4% carbon)
3. Refining Pig Iron to create STEEL in open hearth

Pig Iron + Limestone + Iron Ore

Lime Stone + Ore form Slag
Impurities including carbon float out into slag
When the carbon content is right, we have CARBON STEEL

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When does Carbon Steel becomes

Stainless Steel
In the open hearth furnace, during the
process of making Carbon Steel,
variety of metals might be alloyed to
create different properties
Addition of 10 to 30% chromium creates
Stainless Steel

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Why should we understand

Iron-Carbon Diagram
Metallic materials consists of a
microstructure of small crystals called grains
The nature of grains (size & composition) is
one of the most effective factors that can
determine the overall mechanical behavior of
the metal.
Heat treatment effective way to manipulate
the properties by controlling the rate of
diffusion & cooling within the microstructure.

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What happens when carbon

content is high?

Less ductile
Reduces Weldabilty
Lowers melting point
More corrosion
why? Carbon in steel, at high temperature
precipitates out of the crystal lattice

More hardness
Increased Strength in high temperatures

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What is weldability and how to

increase it?

Why after welding, weld metal

is hard?

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Why PWHT for Lethal Service?

And Why PWHT compulsory for
certain thickness?


For great strength (especially high temp)

High carbon content

During welding of this high carbon steel

Hardness (Brittle) is more

When hardness is more

High corrosion

To reduce corrosion
Reduce hardness

To reduce hardness

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But what if PWHT not possible

as in cases of field welding?

No other go, opt of low carbon steel

Or change to advanced material

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Working of Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel forms a protective
coating on the exposed surface
This coating is a passive film which
resists further oxidation or rusting
Formation of this protective film is due
chromium present in Stainless Steel
oxygen present in atmosphere, such as air,
water or fluids with oxygen

Oxygen combines with chromium to

form chrome oxide on the surface of SS
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Stainless Steel
The remarkable property of this passive
layer is: when damaged it by itself repairs
when chromium in steel reacts with
So as long as there is oxygen, there is corrosion
resistance in SS

All low carbon steels are not stainless steels

The function Stainless steel performs
cannot be alternated by any other material
for their cost
Primarily used when corrosion & oxidation is
a problem
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What happens when carbon

content is high in SS
Carbon in Stainless steel, when heated to
temp 800F and above, carbon precipitates
Combines with chromium and gather in
grain boundaries
This makes steel to lose chromium
So, Promotes corrosion
By controlling the amount of carbon, this is
minimized, so prefer, L grades (Grades with
low carbon content than its straight grade)

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More easily



Types of crystal structure of


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Why all the Stainless Steels

are not produced as L-grades
L-Grades are expensive
For great physical strength, L-grades
cannot be used

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316 / 316L Dual

Means, both these grades meet each
others requirements
316 Good mechanical behavior like
hardness etc
316L Good corrosion resistance
But a 316/316L has the corrosion
resistance of 316L, and also the
mechanical properties of 316

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Why prefer Austenitic SS

Most weldable steel in all types
Most corrosion resistance of the SS

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Duplex Stainless Steel

Combination of Austenitic and Ferritic

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Can Stainless Always handle

NO. It cant.
Halogen (elements) can easily
penetrate this passive layer & will
allow corrosion
Eg for a halogen is:

This is why Stainless Steel is not

preferred for sea water service and
other services which contain Chlorine.

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Cost Difference between Carbon

Steel & Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel = 10 times the cost of

carbon steel

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Now, what does this mean??


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Unified Numbering System

Not a specification does not refer
to the method of manufacturing
System managed jointly by ASTM &
Partly indicates chemical
Eg. S31600 is UNS for A 182 Gr 316
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or SNo.

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P-No. or SNo.
Used for reducing the number of
Welding Procedure Qualification
A test in one P or S number
approves all materials listed under that
P number
S numbers are for pipework to B31. A
P number covers an S number, but
not the vice versa.
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Where to Find What ?????

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Where to Find
To find rating of
=> Remember Ratings
dont apply for pressure
vessels and pipes

=>(includes bolt
dimensions also)

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B 16.5, B 16.47

B 16.5, B 16.47

Where to Find
Materials spec
Grades available
Composition of each grade
Yield & Tensile Strength of all
Available standard dimensions
Thickness, length etc

Section II Part A
Section II Part B

Where to Find

Section II Part-A

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Where to Find
Max allowable Stress values
S for ferrous w.r.t.
Max allowable Stress values
S for non-ferrous w.r.t.

Section II Part-D (Table-1A)

Section II Part-D (Table-1B)

Max allowable Stress values

for Bolting materials

Section II Part-D (Table-3) &

B 31.3

Tensile & Yield Strength

values w.r.t. temperature

Section II Part-D (Table-Su &

Sy) & B 31.3

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What to keep in mind

while searching in Section
II part D
Code has listed many tables for max
allowable stress
But it has been clearly mentioned in
the index and top of each table that
to which ASME sections these values
will comply.

What is the difference

between Ferrous & nonFerrous
Ferrous: Iron is the main element
Eg- A 216 Gr. WCB (Carbon Steel Casting
for high temp)

Non-Ferrous: Materials which does not

contain an appreciable amount of iron.
Iron is added as an alloying element.
Eg B 150 (Nickel Aluminum Bronze)

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Why do we always use SA

516 Gr.70