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Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS





Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Chapter-4
Bending Stress
SFD/BMD
Flexure Formula
Bending Stress in Beam
Bending Stress Distribution

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Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Introduction

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Pure Bending

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Other Loading Types
• Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which
does not pass through section centroid
produces internal forces equivalent to an
axial force and a couple as shown in
Figure 4.5 (a) and (b).
• Transverse Loading: Concentrated or
distributed transverse load produces
internal forces equivalent to a shear force
and a couple as shown in Figure 4.6 (a)
and (b).
• Principle of Superposition: We will
analyze an eccentric axial loading in a
plane of symmetry by superposing the
stresses due to pure bending and the
stresses due to a centric axial loading.

© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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4. All rights reserved.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Symmetric Member in Pure Bending • Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent to a couple. • The moment is the same about any axis perpendicular to the plane of the couple. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. The couple moment is the section bending moment. (The figure shows the positive direction of the bending moment) • From statics. a couple moment (M) consists of two equal and opposite forces.5 . the member will bend uniformly. Inc. • Since the bending moment M is the same in any cross-section.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Deformations in a Symmetric Member in Pure Bending For a beam with a plane of symmetry in pure bending. All rights reserved. It intersects a transverse section along a straight line called the neutral axis of the section. • stresses and strains are negative (compressive) above the neutral plane and positive (tension) below it for a positive bending moment. we notice the followings: • member remains symmetric • bends uniformly to form a circular arc • cross-sectional plane passes through arc center and remains planar • length of top decreases and length of bottom increases • a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the upper and lower surfaces and for which the length does not change. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.6 . 4.

All rights reserved.7 . Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Strain Due to Bending ρ = radius of curvature © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4.

In other words. All rights reserved. for a member subjected to pure bending.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Stresses and Deformations in the Elastic Range • For a linearly elastic material. y Fx  0    x dA     m dA c  0   m  y dA c 0   y dA This equation shows that the first moment of the cross section about its neutral axis must be zero. the neutral axis passes through the centroid of the section (as long as the stresses remain in the elastic range) • For static equilibrium. 4.  y  M     y x dA     y     m  dA  c    I M  m  y 2 dA  m c c Mc M (Elastic Flexure Formula) m   I S y Substituting into  x    m c My x   I © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.  x  E x   y E m c y   m c • For static equilibrium.8 .

the beam with the greater depth will be more effective in resisting bending. it will be more effective in resisting bending) • Consider a rectangular beam cross section. Inc.9 . 4. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Beam Section Properties • The maximum normal stress due to bending. Mc M  I S I  centroidal moment of inertia of the section m  S I  section modulus c A beam section with a larger section modulus will have a lower maximum stress (i. I 121 bh 3 1 2 1 S   6 bh  6 Ah c h2 Between two beams with the same cross sectional area.e. All rights reserved.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Beam Section Properties .Continued • Structural steel beams are designed to have a large section modulus for being more effective in resisting bending. All rights reserved. © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.10 . Inc. 4.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Properties of American Standard S Shapes For Structural Steel where I = Moment of Inertia about centroidal axes. 4. Inc. All rights reserved.11 . S = Section Modulus and r = Radius of Gyration © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

4. All rights reserved.01 (250x106 Pa) = 3000 N. Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 4.12 .m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 4. All rights reserved. 4.02 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.13 .

1 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.14 . All rights reserved. Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 4. 4.

1 .Continued © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 4. 4.15 .

All rights reserved.2 SOLUTION: • Based on the cross section geometry. Inc. determine (a) the maximum tensile and compressive stresses. Mc I • Calculate the curvature 1 M   EI © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 4. Y   yA A  I x   I  A d 2  • Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the maximum tensile and compressive stresses. m  A cast-iron machine part is acted upon by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165 GPa and neglecting the effects of fillets. 4. (b) the radius of curvature. calculate the location of the section centroid and moment of inertia.16 .

2 .Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 4. Area. calculate the location of the section centroid and moment of inertia. All rights reserved. mm 2 1 20  90  1800 2 40  30  1200  A  3000 y . mm 50 20 yA.17 . mm3 90  103 24  103 3  yA  114  10 3  yA 114 10 Y    38 mm 3000 A   121 bh3  A d 2  1 90  203  1800  12 2    1 30  403  1200  182   12 12 I x   I  A d 2   I  868  103 mm4  868  10-9 m 4 © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 4.Continued SOLUTION: Based on the cross section geometry.

All rights reserved.Continued Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the maximum tensile and compressive stresses.7x103 mm=47.038 m B    I 868  10 9 m 4 m   A  76.022 m A   I 868  10 9 m 4 M cB 3x103 N  m  0.0 MPa  B  131.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 4.7 m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 4.95 103 m -1    47.796x10-3   1  20. Mc I M c A 3x103 N  m  0.2 .3 MPa Calculate the curvature 1 M 3x103 N  m    EI 165x109 Pa 868 10-9 m 4  Alternative Solution: εm=σmax/E=131. Inc.796x10-3)=47.18 .3MPa/(165x103MPa)=0.7 m ρ=c/εm=38 mm/(0.

2800 N/m •GE201: Dr. Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Problem 19 •Determine the equivalent concentrated load(s) and external reactions for the simply supported beam which is subjected to the distributed load as shown. •Assume for given loading there are no horizontal reactions at the supports. All rights reserved. 02/20/16 . Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Solution 20 R1 12000 N R2 4800 N A B 5m 2800 N/m Ay 2m 3m By R1  10  1200  12000 N R2  1  1600  6  4800 N 2   Fy  0  Ay  By  12000  4800  0  Ay  By  16800 CCW ( ) M A  0  12000  5  4800  8  By  10  0  By  9840 N. Inc. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 02/20/16 .  Ay  16800  9840  6960 N •GE201: Dr.

Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Beams-Internal Effects 21 • The design of any structural or mechanical member requires an investigation of both the external loads and reactions acting on the member and the loading acting within the member – in order to be sure the material can resist this loading. • How to determine the Internal Loadings: The internal loadings can be determined using the method of sections. – The idea is to cut an imaginary section through the member so that the internal loadings (of interest) at the section become external on the free body diagram of the section. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. – Use equations of equilibrium and find the required internal forces. 02/20/16 . All rights reserved. GE201: Dr.

Note: N will induce when applied loading is oblique. V: Shear force.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Internal forces 22 If the member is subjected to a coplanar system of forces. M: Bending moment. GE201: Dr. and M (bending moment) act at the section. 02/20/16 . N (Normal force). Inc. All rights reserved. only. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. V M N N M V N: Normal force. V (shear force) .

Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. The easy way to remember this sign convention is to isolate a small segment of the member and note that: N N Positive normal force tends to elongate the segment. V and M are in a positive sense. M M GE201: Dr. V V Positive bending moment tends to bend the segment concave upward.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sign Convention 23 M V N N V M The directions shown for N. Positive shear tends to rotate the segment clockwise. 02/20/16 . so as to hold water.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Effect of Bending and Shear 24 GE201: Dr. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. 02/20/16 . Inc.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Determination of the shear and moment values 25 • Calculate all external reactions on the beam. GE201: Dr. All rights reserved. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. • Apply equations of equilibrium to get the values of V and M. 02/20/16 . • At the desired section show V and M in positive sense.

• Avoid using a transverse section that coincides with the location of a concentrated load or couple.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek NOTE 26 • The part of the beam which involves the smaller number of forces. 02/20/16 . either to the right or to the left of the arbitrary section. as such this position represents a point of discontinuity in the variation of shear or bending moment. GE201: Dr. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. usually yields the simpler solution. All rights reserved.

1m 02/20/16 . 2.m B A 1m GE201: Dr. 4 kN 2 kN/m 2. All rights reserved.5 m and 4 m from the left support. Inc.5 m.8 kN. Nazrul Islam 1m 1m 1m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Problem-1 27 Determine the shear and moment values in the simple beam at three sections: 1.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Solution 28 Reactions: 4 kN 2 kN/m 2.8 kN.64 kN  Ay  6  3.5  2. 02/20/16 . All rights reserved.64  2.8  0  By  3.m Ax A Ay B 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m By   Fx  0  Ax  0   Fy  0  Ay  By  2  1  4  0  Ay  By  6 CCW () M A  0  By  5  4  4  (2  1)  2. Inc.36 kN GE201: Dr. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

36  1.5  2.8  0  M  0. 02/20/16 . Inc.5  2)  V  0  V  1.36 kN CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.5 o 2m 2.74 kN.8  0.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek SF and BM calculations 29 x  1.5  0 2  M  2.m A 1.5 o 2.5  2.5 2  0.36 kN   Fy  0  2.8 kN.36 kN   Fy  0  2.36  2(2. All rights reserved.5 m V 2.36 kN CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.36  2.m GE201: Dr.m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.85 kN.36  V  0  V  2.8 kN.m M 2 kN/m V A 2. Nazrul Islam M 2.5 m x  2.

m BM is the same under the point load but SF changes from 0.8 kN.36  4  2.8 kN. GE201: Dr.36  4  2.m  M  3. 02/20/16 .64 kN.36 kN to -3.36  2  1  V  0  V  0.64 kN.m 2.5)  4  0  0  M  3.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek SF and BM calculations 30 Section just after the point load Section just before the point load 2. All rights reserved.64 kN CCW ( )M O  0 CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.5)  0  M  2.64 kN.36 kN  2.36 kN 1m 4kN 1m M o 4m 2.8  ( 2  1)  (4  2.36 kN   Fy  0   Fy  0  2.m 2 kN/m V A 1m 1m o 1m 4m 2 kN/m V M 1m 2. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.36  2  1  4  V  0  V  3.8  (2  1)  (4  2.

4 kN 2 kN/m 2. 1m 02/20/16 .8 kN.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Home Work 31 Determine the shear and moment values in the simple beam at 1. Inc.0 m distance from the left support. Nazrul Islam 1m 1m 1m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.m B A 1m GE201: Dr.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Shear-force and Bending-moment diagrams 32 The variation of shear-force and bending moments plotted against distance along the beam give the shear-force and bending moment diagrams for the beam. Inc. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 02/20/16 . GE201: Dr. All rights reserved.

line.g.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Determination of the Shear and Moment expressions using Method of Sections 33 • Calculate all the external reactions on the beam. • Apply equations of equilibrium to this isolated portion of the beam to obtain expressions for the V and M.). All rights reserved. • Draw the section (at a distance x) and show V and M (in positive sense) on the cut portion. Inc. parabolic etc. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. 02/20/16 . GE201: Dr. • Apply above method at a number of sections and get moment and shear values at all these sections. • Draw the variation of shear and moment values along the length of the beam keeping in view the nature of the variation (e.

All rights reserved. Inc.m B A 1m GE201: Dr. Nazrul Islam 1m 1m 1m 1m © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.8 kN.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Problem-2 34 Plot the shear and moment diagrams produced in the simple beam by the forces shown. 4 kN 2 kN/m 2. 02/20/16 .

8 kN. All rights reserved.8  0  By  3.m Ax A Ay B 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m By   Fx  0  Ax  0   Fy  0  Ay  By  2  1  4  0  Ay  By  6 CCW () M A  0  By  5  4  4  (2  1)  2.64 kN  Ay  6  3.36 kN GE201: Dr.5  2. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. 02/20/16 .Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Solution 35 Reactions: 4 kN 2 kN/m 2.64  2.

Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.64 kN 2.0 3.8 kN. 4. Inc.36 kN x x 2  x  3.0  x  4.m Ax 0  x  1.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Desired sections 36 4 kN 2 kN/m 2.0 1m 1m 3.0 A B 1m 1m 1m 1  x  2.0 x x x GE201: Dr.0  x  5.0 02/20/16 .

m V A x o 2 kN/m V A M 2.36  2( x  2)  V  0  V  6.0  x  2.36 x (Linear in x) x 2m o M 2.0  x  3.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek SF and BM calculations 37 0  x  1.36 x  6.8 kN.8  2.36  V  0  V  2.36 kN (Constant) CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.36 x  2.36 x  2. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.m M 2.0 1.8 (parabolic in x) GE201: Dr.36 kN   Fy  0  2.0 V A x o 2.36 x  0  M  2.8  0  M  2.8  ( x  2) 2( x  2) 0 2  M   x 2  6.36 kN   Fy  0  2.36 x (Linear in x) 2.36  V  0  V  2.36 kN   Fy  0  2.0 2. All rights reserved. Inc.36  2 x (Linear in x) CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.8 kN.36 kN (Constant) CCW ( )M O  0  M  2. 02/20/16 .

5)  0  M  0.36 kN V o 1m 1m M A 1m 1m 1m 1m x   Fy  0  2.36 x  2.36 (Constant) CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.36 x  2.36 x  2.36 kN   Fy  0  2.0 3.0  x  4.8  2  1( x  2.2 (linear in x) GE201: Dr.0 2.8 kN.2 (linear in x) © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.m 2.64 kN (Constant) CCW ( )M O  0  M  2.8 kN.0  x  5.36  2  1  V  0  V  0. Nazrul Islam V M 2.5)  4( x  4)  0  M  3.64 x  18.36  2  1  4  V  0  V  3. All rights reserved.8  2  1( x  2. Inc.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek SF and BM calculations 38 4. 02/20/16 .m A 4 kN 2 kN/m 2 kN/m 1m o x 2.

36 x  2.0 4.2 (linear in x) 1.36 2.8  2.36 0.36 kN (Constant) 2  x  3.44 0.36 x (Linear in x) .0 M  0.5 2.74 1.82 0 kN BM kNm GE201: Dr.0 2. Inc.36 -3.0 4.36  2 x (Linear in x) M   x  6.64 kN (Constant) 0  x  1.5 3.) 39 0  x  1.36 x  6.36 0.8 (parabolic in x) 3.64 1.0  x  5.0 2.92 2.36 kN (Constant) 1  x  2.46 3.36 0.0 3.64 -3.36 1.85 3.0 V  2.0 M  3.28 3.36 0.64 -3.0 4.36 2.36 -0.0  x  4.0 1.0  x  2.0 2.64 x  18.28 3.0  x  4.5 4.0 V  2. All rights reserved.0  x  5.5 1.36 x (Linear in x) 2 V  6.64 3.0 x M  2.36 2. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 5.0 3.92 1.2 (linear in x) V  0. 02/20/16 .0 2.64 0 1.Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek SF and BM calculations (contd.36 (Constant) 4.36 2.0 V  3.0  x  3.0 1.36 2.36 2.18 2.0 3.0 0 SF M  2.

Fifth MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Shear force and Bending Moment Diagrams 40 4 kN 2 kN/m 2. All rights reserved.m A B 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 3.36 kN 2.28 2. Nazrul Islam © 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies.64 kN 2.8 kN. Inc. 02/20/16 .92 BMD  0.64 3.36 1.36 SFD 3.64  3.44 GE201: Dr.36 0.