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Pumps & Compressors

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**• Pumps are used to move liquid from a low pressure or
**

low elevation to higher pressure or elevation.

• Two types of pumps generally in oil industry

• Centrifugal pumps: Are recommended to use where

large volume at lesser pressure are required. Higher

pressure can also be achieved by multi-stage

centrifugal pump.

• Reciprocating pumps: Are recommended to use where

high discharge pressure and low flow rate are required

Centrifugal

• Flow is completely steady

• No output limit.

• High head obtained with

multi-stage at high speed

with large output.

• Range 1000 to 3000 rpm

• Direct coupling with motor

or engine.

• Less efficiency when Q/H

is low.

• Q depends on H.

• Low capital &

maintenance cost

Reciprocating

• Flow is more or less

pulsating.

• Output rarely exceeds

200 m3/hr.

• High head obtained

efficiently at low speed.

• Range 100 to 300rpm

• Reduction gear required.

• Efficiency is very high.

• Q is independent of H.

• high capital &

maintenance cost

Centrifugal Pump • Centrifugal pump imparts velocity to a liquid. • Static Suction left : when the source of supply is below the centre line of pump. • This velocity can be calculated by • V = RPM X D/229 • The static head corresponding to any pressure is dependent on the weight of liquid by the formula • Head in feet = head in psi x 2. Head develop is approx equal to velocity energy. • H = V2/2g. Vertical distance in feet from the centre line of pump to the top level of suction reservoir. . g is 32.31/ Sp.Gr. This velocity change into pressure energy.2 ft/sec2. where H is head in feet.

• Velocity head: head necessary to accelerate the fluid & calculated as hv = v2 /2g. . • Total static head: Vertical distance in feet from the top level of suction reservoir to the top liquid level in discharge reservoir. • Static discharge head: is the vertical distance in feet from between the pump centerline and the top liquid level in discharge reservoir. Vertical distance in feet from the centre line of pump to the top level of suction reservoir. • Friction head: head required to overcome resistance to flow in pipes & fittings.• Static suction head :when the source of supply is above the centre line of pump.

• Total Dynamic Suction Lift (h s): Static suction lift minus velocity head at suction flange plus total friction head in the suction line. • Total Dynamic Suction Head (h s): Static suction head plus velocity head at suction flange minus total friction head in the suction line. • Total Dynamic Discharge Head (h d): Static discharge head plus velocity head at discharge flange plus total friction head in the discharge line. • Total Dynamic Head (TDH) • TDH = hd + hs (with a suction lift) • TDH = hd . • Q = A X V or V = Q/A .hs (with a suction head) • Capacity : Q is normally expressed gpm & is directly related to the velocity of flow and area of the pipe.

Gr.Pump output or HHP is the liquid horsepower delivered by the pump & is expressed as • HHP = Q x TDH x Sp. / 3960 x ג • NPSH : Total suction head in feet absolute at suction nozzle minus the vapour pressure of the liquid in feet absolute or is defined as the net pressure above the vapour pressure of the liquid being pumped. / 3960 • Brake Horsepower (BHP):Pump input or BHP is the actual horsepower delivered to the pump shaft & is expressed as • BHP = Q x TDH x Sp. Gr. NPSH available exceeds the NPSH required by at least 3 to 5 feet .` • Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP):Work performed by pump is a function of total head & the weight of liquid pumped in a given time period.

Gr/3960 • HHP of reciprocating Pump = gpm x psi / 1714 • BHP = HHP / Efficiency • Elect HP input to motor = Pump BHP/ ג • KW input to motor = Pump BHP x .7457 / ג • Affinity Laws : These laws are the mathematical relationship between variables for centrifugal pump performance.31/ Sp. • with impeller dia constant.Gr • HHP of centrifugal Pump = gpm x head in ft x Sp. Q1/Q2 = N1/N2 • H1/H2 = (N1/N2)2 BHP1/BHP2 = (N1/N2)3 .• Pump sizing formulas • Head in feet = head in psi x 2.

• With speed constant • H1/H2 = (D1/D2)2 Q1/Q2 = D1/D2 BHP1/BHP2 = (D1/D2)3 .

Problems • An oil of Sp.85 is required to transport from an underground tank 30’ deep from the pump suction to an uphill tank at 130’ high. Calculate the BHP of the pump. What will it deliver at 1800 rpm? . the friction losses along the pipes and fittings is 40 psi. The pump is assumed to be 65% efficient. A pump operating at 2000 rpm having an impeller dia 12” delivering at rate of 300 gpm is required to install. Gr . • If a pump delivers 350 gpm at 1200 rpm.

of cylinders as simplex. plunger or diaphragm. duplex.Reciprocating Pumps • In this pump energy is added to the fluid intermittently by moving one or more boundaries linearly with a piston. . triplex or quantaplex etc. • These pumps are also classified by the no. • In case low NPSH application centrifugal pumps are used as a charge pump to feed the suction of recipes'. • NPSH available must exceeds the NPSH requird. • If the liquid is pumped during movement in one direction it is classified as single acting. • If the liquid is pumped during movement in both direction it is classified as double acting.

. piping vibration and to reduce pump maintenance cost.• Pulsation dampeners are used at suction and discharge of pump the minimize pulsation. • A cone type strainer to be installed at pump suction. • Swing type check valve (NRV) to be installed at pump discharge to avoid flow reversal and to reduce pulsation. • Pressure relief valves must be installed at discharge and suction.

• Compressors are used for compressible fluids where as pumps are used for noncompressible fluids .COMPRESSOR • The function of a compressor is to take a definite quantity of fluid (a gas or air) and deliver it at a required higher pressure.

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS • Centrifugal Compressors • Reciprocating Compressors • Screw Compressors .

. • Reciprocating Compressors: Low mass rate of flow and high pressure ratios.GENERAL APPLICATION • Centrifugal Compressors: High mass rate of flow and low pressure ratios.

. through the impeller eye and is whirled around at higher speeds by the vanes on the impeller as the impeller rotates at high rotational speed. Air is drawn in.Centrifugal Compressors A centrifugal compressor consists of an impeller with a series of curved radial vanes.

• Ration of discharge pressure & suction pressure is called compression ratio. . • In production facilities mostly packaged type reciprocating are used.RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS • A reciprocating compressor is one which increases the out let pressure of gas/air by the reciprocating movement of piston.

Component of Compressors • • • • • • • Compressor Prime mover Scrubbers Suction & discharge pulsation bottles Coolers Control panel Control valves. safety devices and instrumentation .

.

.2). Discharge valve opens and the compressed gas is discharged from the cylinder (3 .OPERATING CYCLE 1. 4. 3. Suction valve closes and gas compression begins (2 .3). Suction valve opens and gas is drawn into the cylinder (1 .4). ( 4 . A gap is shown in this diagram between zero volume and the volume at position 4 which is clearance volume in the cylinder. 2.1). Discharge valve closes.

Swept Volume Swept volume is the volume swept by a compressor piston during a complete stroke.Area Rod (in2) ] * Stroke (in) . Swept volume is expressed in cubic inches and calculated as follows: Head End = Area Piston (in2) * Stroke (in) Crank End = (Area Piston (in2) .Area Rod (in2)) * Stroke (in) Total = [2 x Area Piston (in2) .

The following formula would be used to calculate the displacement of a cylinder. m) x RPM 1728 . Piston Displacement (CFM)= Swept Volume(cu.Piston Displacement • Piston displacement is expressed in cubic feet per minute and is the product of the swept volume and compressor speed in revolutions per minute.

crosshead sleepers. • Force feed lubrication can minimize friction & keep the comp cool. main and rod bearings are lubricated . • Piston. crankshaft.Lubrication System • Compressor moving parts generate heat due to friction. piston rod Packing.

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