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Why Study the Autonomic Nervous System?

Medicinal
Chemistry

Pathophysiology

Therapeutics

ANS

Disease State
Management

Pharmacology

Organization of The Nervous System Central Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Parasympathetic .

Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions  Issue from different regions of the CNS – Sympathetic – also called the thoracolumbar division – Parasympathetic – also called the craniosacral division Copyright © 2005 Figure 15.3 .

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15. Inc.The Parasympathetic Division Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.5 ..

publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 15.7 .Sympathetic Division of the ANS Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.. Inc.

Inc.Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Figure 15.4a ..

4b . publishing as Figure 15. Inc.Anatomical Differences in Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education..

MCMP 407 Parasympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Ca 2+ Acetylcholinesterase Na+  ACH Action Potential Na Preganglionic neuron + Nicotinic Receptor Postganglionic neuron .

MCMP 407 Parasympathetic Organ Synapse Acetylcholinesterase Ca 2+ Effector Organ Na+ K+ G Action Potential ACH Muscarinic Receptor Postganglionic neuron .

MCMP 407 Summary of parasympathetic neurons and synapses Preganglionic neurons    Long Synapse with postganglionic neurons at or near organ Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons Postganglionic neurons    Short Synapse on the target organ Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate muscarinic receptors on the target organ .

MCMP 407 Sympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Ca 2+ Acetylcholinesterase Na+  ACH Action Potential Na Preganglionic neuron + Nicotinic Receptor Postganglionic neuron .

MCMP 407 Sympathetic Organ Synapse Ca 2+ Effector Organ Na+ Action Potential G NE Adrenergic Receptor Postganglionic neuron .

MCMP 407 Summary of sympathetic neurons and synapses Preganglionic neurons    Short Synapse with postganglionic neurons near spinal cord Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons Postganglionic neurons    Long Synapse on the target organ Release norepinephrine to activate adrenergic receptors on target organs .

MCMP 407 Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system:  Sweat glands: » Postganglionic neurons involved with stress-related excretion release norepinephrine (“sweaty palms”) » Postganglionic neurons involved with thermoregulation release acetylcholine .

and activate nicotinic receptors on the adrenal gland » Adrenal glands release epinephrine into systemic circulation Most postganglionic sympathetic neurons release what neurotransmitter? .MCMP 407 Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system:  Kidneys: » Postganglionic neurons to the smooth muscle of the renal vascular bed release dopamine  Adrenal gland: » Preganglionic neurons do not synapse in the paraverterbral sympathetic ganglion » Preganglionic neurons synapse directly on the adrenal gland. release acetylcholine.

MCMP 407 How do drugs influence the ANS?  Mimic or block the effects of the two primary neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine/Epinephrine  Drugs that mimic neurotransmitters are referred to as “receptor agonists”  These drugs activate receptors  Drugs that block neurotransmitters are referred to as “receptor antagonists”  These drugs block the endogenous neurotransmitters from activating receptors .

MCMP 407 Classification of drugs affecting the ANS  Parasympathetic nervous system Mimic acetylcholine = cholinergic = muscarinic agonists = parasympathomimetic Block acetylcholine = anticholinergic = muscarinic antagonist = parasympatholytic  Sympathetic nervous system Mimic norepinephrine = adrenergic = adrenergic agonist = sympathomimetic Block norepinephrine = antiadrenergic = adrenergic antagonist = sympatholytic .