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:

Physical Origins

and

Rate Equations

Chapter One

Sections 1.1 and 1.2

Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy

**• What is heat transfer?
**

Heat transfer is thermal energy in transit due to a temperature

difference.

**• What is thermal energy?
**

Thermal energy is associated with the translation, rotation,

vibration and electronic states of the atoms and molecules

that comprise matter. It represents the cumulative effect of

microscopic activities and is directly linked to the temperature

of matter.

) DO NOT confuse or interchange the meanings of Thermal Energy. Temperature and Heat Transfer Quantity Meaning Symbol Units Thermal Energy+ Energy associated with microscopic behavior of matter U or u J or J/kg Temperature A means of indirectly assessing the amount of thermal energy stored in matter T K or °C Heat Transfer Thermal energy transport due to temperature gradients Heat Amount of thermal energy transferred over a time interval t 0 Q J q W q W/m 2 Heat Rate Heat Flux Thermal energy transfer per unit time Thermal energy transfer per unit time and surface area + U Thermal energy of system u Thermal energy per unit mass of system .Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy (cont.

Convection: Heat transfer due to the combined influence of bulk and random motion for fluid flow over a surface. Radiation: Energy that is emitted by matter due to changes in the electron configurations of its atoms or molecules and is transported as electromagnetic waves (or photons). molecules and /or electrons. its transport does not require a material medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum.Modes of Heat Transfer Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction: Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or liquid) due to the random motion of its constituent atoms. . • Conduction and convection require the presence of temperature variations in a material medium. • Although radiation originates from matter.

steady conduction across a plane wall of constant thermal conductivity: qx k qx k Heat rate (W): qx qx A dT T T k 2 1 dx L T1 T2 L (1.Heat Transfer Rates: Conduction Heat Transfer Rates Conduction: General (vector) form of Fourier’s Law: q k T Heat flux W/m 2 Thermal conductivity W/m K Temperature gradient °C/m or K/m Application to one-dimensional.2) .

Heat Transfer Rates: Convection Heat Transfer Rates Convection Relation of convection to flow over a surface and development of velocity and thermal boundary layers: Newton’s law of cooling: q h Ts T h : Convection heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2 K) (1.3a) .

5) Eb : Emissive power of a blackbody (the perfect emitter ) : Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5.Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation Heat Transfer Rates Radiation Heat transfer at a gas/surface interface involves radiation emission from the surface and may also involve the absorption of radiation incident from the surroundings (irradiation.6) . Energy outflow due to emission: E Eb Ts4 E : Emissive power W/m 2 : Surface emissivity 0 1 (1. as well as convection if Ts T .67 10 -8 W/m 2 K 4 Energy absorption due to irradiation: Gabs G Gabs :Absorbed incident radiation (W/m 2 ) : Surface absorptivity 0 1 G : Irradiation W/m 2 (1. G ).

Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation (cont.7) . Tsur G Gsur Tsur4 If . the net radiation heat flux from the surface due to exchange with the surroundings is: Eb Ts G Ts4 Tsur4 qrad (1.) Heat Transfer Rates Irradiation: Special case of surface exposed to large surroundings of uniform temperature.

9) For combined convection and radiation. hr Ts Tsur qrad hr : Radiation heat transfer coefficient W/m 2 K hr Ts Tsur Ts2 Tsur2 (1. qrad h Ts T hr Ts Tsur q qconv (1.) Heat Transfer Rates Alternatively.Heat Transfer Rates: Radiation (cont.8) (1.10) .

2 qrad.s qcond.Process Identification Problem 1.87(a): Process identification for single-and double-pane windows Schematic: qconv.1 qrad. fraction transmitted to room is smaller for double pane .s qrad.2 qs Convection from room air to inner surface of first pane Net radiation exchange between room walls and inner surface of first pane Conduction through first pane Convection across airspace between panes Net radiation exchange between outer surface of first pane and inner surface of second pane (across airspace) Conduction through a second pane Convection from outer surface of single (or second) pane to ambient air Net radiation exchange between outer surface of single (or second) pane and surroundings such as the ground Incident solar radiation during day.2 qconv.1 qconv .1 qcond.

67×10-8 W/m 2 K 4 358 4 60K = 0.158W 298 K = 0.40: Power dissipation from chips operating at a surface temperature of 85C and in an enclosure whose walls and air are at 25C for (a) free convection and (b) forced convection.25 10-4 m 2 5.2W/m 2 K 5/4 2. (3) Negligible heat transfer from sides of chip or from back of chip by conduction through the substrate.Problem: Electronic Cooling Problem 1. 5/4 qconv CA Ts T = 4.158W 0.25 10-4 m 2 60K 3.375W Pelec 3. Schematic: Assumptions: (1) Steady-state conditions. qconv hA Ts T 250W/m 2 K 4 2. (2) Radiation exchange between a small surface and a large enclosure.60 2.375W 0.065W = 0.223W (b) If heat transfer is by forced convection. Analysis: Pelec qconv qrad hA Ts T A Ts4 Tsur4 A L2 0.015m 2.25 10-4 m 2 qrad 0.065W 5/4 4 4 Pelec 0.44W .065W 3.25×10-4 m 2 2 (a) If heat transfer is by natural convection.

Relationship to Thermodynamics Chapter One Section 1.3 .

often providing the basis for determining the temperature of a system.Alternative Formulations CONSERVATION OF ENERGY (FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS) • An important tool in heat transfer analysis. • Alternative Formulations Time Basis: At an instant or Over a time interval Type of System: Control volume Control surface .

12c) Each term has units of J/s or W. energy conversion process occurs within the system. (1. or chemical). rate of thermal and/or mechanical energy transfer across the control surface due to heat transfer. Conservation of Energy dE E&in E&out E&g st & E st dt (1. fluid flow and/or work interactions. Surface Phenomena E&in E&out : ..CV at an Instant and over a Time Interval APPLICATION TO A CONTROL VOLUME • At an Instant of Time: Note representation of system by a control surface (dashed line) at the boundaries.12b) . electrical. • Over a Time Interval Ein Eout Eg Est Each term has units of J.g. nuclear. Volumetric Phenomena E&g : rate of thermal energy generation due to conversion from another energy form (e. E&st : rate of change of energy storage in the system.

Closed System • Special Cases (Linkages to Thermodynamics) (i) Transient Process for a Closed System of Mass (M) Assuming Heat Transfer to the System (Inflow) and Work Done by the System (Outflow).12a) . Over a time interval Q W Esttot For negligible changes in potential or kinetic energy Q W U t Internal thermal energy At an instant q W dU t dt (1.

dU t dT Mc dt dt • Heat transfer is from the conductor (negative q ) • Generation may be viewed as electrical work done on the system (negative W&) .4 Example 1.Example 1.4: Application to thermal response of a conductor with Ohmic heating (generation): • Involves change in thermal energy and for an incompressible substance.

6 Example 1.Example 1.6: Application to isothermal solid-liquid phase change in a container: Latent Heat of Fusion U t U lat Mhsf .

Open System (ii) Steady State for Flow through an Open System without Phase Change or Generation: At an Instant of 2 Time: m& ut pv V gz q m& ut pv V 2 in • pv flow work • ut pv i enthalpy • For an ideal gas with constant specific heat: iin iout c p Tin Tout • For an incompressible liquid: uin uout c Tin Tout pv in pv out 0 • For systems with significant heat transfer: V 2 2 V in gz in 2 0 2 out gz 0 out 2 • gz W 0 2 out (1.12d) .

Consider surface of wall with heat transfer by conduction. energy storage and generation are not pertinent to the energy balance.Surface Energy Balance THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE A special case for which no volume or mass is encompassed by the control surface. • With no mass and volume. even if they occur in the medium bounded by the surface.13) • Applies for steady-state and transient conditions. convection and radiation. qconv qrad 0 qcond k T1 T2 4 h T2 T 2 T24 Tsur 0 L . Conservation of Energy (Instant in Time): E&in E&out 0 (1.

generation and/or storage terms by labeled arrows on the schematic.Methodology METHODOLOGY OF FIRST LAW ANALYSIS • On a schematic of the system. • Identify relevant energy transport. • Solve for the unknown quantity. • Choose the appropriate time basis. represent the control surface by dashed line(s). . • Write the governing form of the Conservation of Energy requirement. • Substitute appropriate expressions for terms of the energy equation.

Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the wafer temperature and (b) the steady-state temperature. SCHEMATIC: • .Problem: Silicon Wafer Problem 1.57: Thermal processing of silicon wafers in a two-zone furnace.

l cd qrad.00078 m dTw / dt i dTw / dt i 104 K/s < . h Tw Tsur.c Tw hu Tw T hl Tw T cd d Tw dt 0.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 15004 300 4 K 4 0. per unit surface area h qrad.65 5. u qcv.67 10 8 W / m 2 K 4 3304 3004 K 4 8 W / m 2 K 300 700 K 4 W / m 2 K 300 700 K 2700 kg / m3 875 J / kg K 0.65 5.) E&in E&out E&st or.Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont. c qcv. d Tw dt 4 4 4 4 Tsur.

ss 700 K 0 Tw.ss K 4 0.Problem: Silicon Wafer (cont.ss 700 K 4 W / m 2 K Tw.65 15004 Tw.65 3304 Tw4.ss 1251 K < . ss K 4 8 W / m 2 K Tw.) 4 0.

535 J/kg·K .Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister Problem 1.64: Cooling of spherical canister used to store reacting chemicals. Determine (a) the initial rate of change of the canister temperature. and (c) the effect of convection on the steady-state temperature. (b) the steady-state temperature.

) SCHEMATIC: < .Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.

6m < 2 439K < .Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.) dT 0.084 K/s dt i q T T i h ri ro 2 105 W/m 2 0.5m 300K 500W/m 2 K 0.

Problem: Cooling of Spherical Canister (cont.) .

the Carnot efficiency is C Q T W 1 out 1 c Qin Qin Th (1. For an internally reversible heat engine with heat transfer to and from the large reservoirs properly accounted for.i (1.15. respectively.Second law SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • An important tool to determine how heat transfer affects the efficiency of energy conversion.17) where Tc . 1. Note that qout and qin are heat transfer rates (J/s or W).i Th are the absolute temperatures seen by the internally reversible heat engine. For a reversible heat engine neglecting heat transfer effects between the heat engine and large reservoirs. .16) where Tc and Th are the absolute temperatures of large cold and hot reservoirs.i Qout qout W m 1 1 1 Qin Qin qin Th. the modified Carnot efficiency is Tc.i Tc and Th .

i qin Rt . The modified Carnot efficiency may ultimately be expressed as m 1 Tc where Rtot Rt .21.b) Th Th. 1. walls separating the internally reversible heat engine from the hot and cold reservoirs relate the heat transfer rates to temperature differences: (1.Second law (cont.c Th qin Rtot (1.18 a. h Tc.c In reality. for example.) • Heat transfer resistances associated with. For realistic situations (Rtot 0). for any temperature difference only a finite amount of heat may be transferred. m nC only if Rtot could be made infinitely small.m nC . Good heat transfer engineering is a key to improve the efficiency of heat engines.i Tc qout Rt . .21) From Eq. h Rt . heat transfer resistances (K/W) must be non-zero since according to the rate equations.

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