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If I go crazy, is it

okay with you?


I mean, Kung
mababaliw ako,
ayos lang ba kung
sayo?

Excavatio
n safety

Para saan pa yang


paa mo?
Kung hindi ka
naman lalakad sa
altar...
kasama ko.

Maniniwala lang
ako sa destiny,
...kung tayo ICO
ang meant to be.

OVERALL GOAL
ASSURE THE SAFETY OF:
Employees who
work in or around
excavations
The general public
who work or travel
in the vicinity of
excavations.

Did You Know?

?
O
S
Excavating is one of the
most hazardous
construction operations
Most accidents occur in
trenches 5-15 feet deep
There is usually no
warning before a cavein

Soil is Heavy

A cube of soil
measuring 1 ft. on a
side weighs at least
100 lb (more in many
cases). A cubic yard
of soil (3 ft. on a side)
contains 27 of these,
or 2,700 lbs. total.
This weighs about as
much as a mid-sized
automobile.

...

Definition
of Terms

Definition of Terms

Excavation Is any man-made cut,


cavity or depression in an earth surface
formed by earth removal.
Trench narrow underground
excavation that is deeper than it is
wide and no wider than 15 feet.
All trenches are excavations, but not all
excavations are trenches. Trenches are
usually more dangerous.

Types of
Excavation
OPEN EXCAVATION (Bulk
Excavation)
- an excavation where the
width is equal to or greater
than the depth.

TRENCH EXCAVATION - an
excavation having a depth
which exceeds its width but
the width of a trench is not
greater than 4.5 M (15 ft).

Typical Excavation Sites

Huwag mo munang
gawin ang lahat
ngayon,
...para may gawin
ka pa kinabukasan

Soil
Mechanic
s

SOIL MECHANICS

In trenching and excavation practices,


SOIL is defined as any materials
removed from the ground to form a
hole, trench or cavity for the purpose
of working below the earths surface.

Stable Rock

Natural solid
mineral matter
that can be excavated with
vertical sides and remain
intact while exposed.
Usually identified as
granite or sandstone.

Type A Soil
TYPE

A SOILS are
cohesive soils with an
unconfined compressive
strength
of 1.5 tons per square foot (tsf)
or greater.
Examples of Type A cohesive
soils are often: clay, silty clay,
sandy clay, clay loam and, in
some cases, silty clay loam and
sandy clay loam.

Type B Soil

TYPE B SOILS are


cohesive soils with an
unconfined compressive
strength greater than 0.5
tsf but less than 1.5 tsf.
Examples of Type B soils
are: angular gravel; silt;
silt loam.

Type C Soil
TYPE C SOILS are
cohesive soils with an
unconfined compressive
strength of 0.5 tsf or less.
Type C soils include granular
soils such as gravel, sand and
loamy sand, submerged soil,
soil from which water is freely
seeping, and submerged rock
that is not stable.

Ty
pe
s
of
Soi
l
Co
lla
ps
e

Ge
ner
al
zon
e of
exp
osu
re

Spo
il
pile
slid
e

General zone of exposure (fracture point) - The


area where workers are exposed to mass
soil/rock movement.

Spoil pile slide - Poor excavating procedures


where the excavated material is not placed far
enough away from the edge of the excavation.

Sid
e
Wal
l
She
ar

Slo
ugh
-in

Rotation

Ty
pe
s
of
Soi
l
Co
lla
ps
e

Side wall Shear

Common to clay
type soils which are
exposed to drying
Slough-in (Cave-in)

Common to
previously excavated
material, sand and
gravel.

Rotation
Clay-type soils when
saturated with water.

Trench Failures
(a)

(b)

Figure : Mechanics of
Trench Failures

(c)

(d)

(e)

Ang taong kinikilig,


...sa akin nakatitig.

Excavation
Hazards

Excavation Hazards
Hazardous
Surface

encumbrances
Utilities
Access/Egress
Vehicle traffic
Falling loads
Mobile
equipment

atmospheres
Water
accumulation
Adjacent
structures
Loose rock or
soil
Falls
Cave-in

Surface Encumbrances

All surface
encumbrances
that could
cause a hazard
must be
removed or
supported
e.g. fencing,

piping,
structure,
materials
36

Underground Utilities

Locate prior to digging


Certify deactivation
Protect, support, or
remove

37

Access/Egress

Note: Poor housekeeping --- # 1 cause of


slips, trips and falls on construction projects
Debris kept cleared from work areas
Mark hazards
Barricade or cover holes

Egress provided
- 25 travel distance
- ladders
- ramps
- stairs
38

Vehicle Traffic

Traffic Control
Traffic Safety Vests

39

Mobile Equipment

Warning system
Barricades
Hand signals
Mechanical signals
Stop logs
Grade away from
excavation

40

Hazardous Atmosphere

Test @ 4 if suspected
LEL

Oxygen
CO
H2S
Petroleum
Other toxics

41

Ventilation

Displace hazardous gases


and vapors
Considerations
Heavier than air or
lighter than air
contaminant
Exhausting or blowing
in
Volume/time required
to lower concentrations
to acceptable levels
42

Water Accumulations

Protection from hazards


associated with water
accumulation
Protection against
cave-in
Water removal
(pumping)
Run-off protection
Consider temporary
shut-off of water lines
43

Adjacent Structures

Ensure structure
stability
Shoring
Bracing
Underpinning
Or evaluation by
P.E.

44

Cave-in

Protection from
cave-in requires a
systematic approach
including:
Soil classification
Protective systems
Inspection
Employee training

45

Sayangin mo na
ang isang buong
taon
...wag lang ang
isang pagkakataon.

Excavation
Protections

METHODS OF EXCAVATION
PROTECTION

Sloping
Benching
Shoring / Timbering
Shielding
Sheet Piles
Concrete Piles
Micro piles
Diaphragm
Dewatering System

50

Sloping

SLOPING - method of excavating in which


the sides of an excavation are laid to a
safe angle to prevent cave-ins.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SLOPES:


Soil / Rock RatioSlope
Type (Deg)
Stable Rock
Type A : 1
Type B 1:1
Type C 1 :

Vertical 90
53
45
1 34

Note: This table is good for excavation less than


20
Ft deep.

Sloping

Simple slope excavation in Type A soil


with a 3/4H:1V

Sloping

Simple slope excavation in Type B soil


with a 1H:1V slope

Sloping

Simple slope excavation in Type C with a


1-1/2H to 1V slope

Benching

BENCHING - a method of excavating in


which the sides of the excavation are to
form one or more series of horizontal steps,
with rise between steps to prevent cave-ins.
Soil / Rock
Type

Ratio
Slope
(Deg)

Type A
Type B
Type C

: 1
1:1
n/a

53
45
n/a

Benching for Type A Soil


Benched
excavation in
Type A soil
with a
maximum
slope of
3/4H:1V.

Benching for Type B Soil

Multiple benched excavation in Type


B soil with a slope of 1H:1V. This
bench allowed in cohesive soil only.

Shoring

SHORING - hydraulic, timber or


mechanical systems that support the
sides of an excavation designed to
prevent cave-ins.

Shields (Trench
Boxes)

Shoring Systems
Shoring systems
consist of posts,
wales, struts and
sheeting.
Two basic types
of shoring:

Timber
Aluminum

hydraulic

Hydraulic Shoring
HYDRAULIC SHORING:

a pre- engineered
support system of
aluminum hydraulic
cylinders (crossbraced) used with
vertical rods (uprights)
or horizontal rods
designed specifically to
support side walls of
an excavation to
prevent cave-in.

Timber Shoring

Hydraulic Shoring

Hydraulic shoring is a prefabricated


strut and/or wale system made of
aluminum or steel.
Hydraulic shoring offers a critical
advantage over timber shoring
because you do not have to enter the
trench to install or remove it. Most
systems are light enough to be
installed by one worker.

Shielding

Trench boxes are different from


shoring because, instead of
shoring the trench face, they are
intended primarily to protect
workers from cave-ins and similar
incidents.
The excavated area between the
outside of the trench box and
the face of the trench
should
be as small
as possible.
Box should extend 18 inches
above surrounding area if
sloping toward
excavation.

Example of Trench Box

Installing & Removing Protective


Structures

Connect support system members


securely.
Avoid overloading system members.
Install other structural members to
carry loads imposed on the support
system when you need to remove an
individual member.
Remove from the bottom up.
Backfill the excavation as soon as
possible.

Sample Excavation Prevention

AKO MISMO!
...ikaw din miss ko.

Confined
Spaces

Definition
Confined space
Any chamber, tank, pit, pipe, flue including any
other
similar spaces in which dangerous airborne
substances are liable to be present to pose the risk
of
fire/explosion
persons overcome by toxic substances
asphyxiated from lack of oxygen
Not meant/designed for human occupancy
Limited ventilation or limited opening

Examples of Confined
Spaces
Manhole

Storage Tank

Examples of Confined
Spaces
Tank

Silo

Why Are Confined


Spaces Deadly?

Confined spaces are deceiving and


often appear to be harmless. Danger
signs (such as dead animals, rusting
walls, odours) are often not apparent
and the space may have been entered
before without incident. Never
assume that conditions have not
changed and that the space is safe
for entry at all times.

Ang taong
pinagpala ng
pinagpala ng
pinagpala,
...malamang
construction
worker un.

General
Requireme
nts

OSHA Standard 29 CFR


1926.650-652
Subpart P
OSHA is the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration, which is an agency within the
Federal Department of Labor. Sections 650-652
contain the Excavation regulations, which are
also known as Subpart P.

Over view of OSHAs rule


29 CFR 1926.650-.652
Assign a competent person
Keep spoil piles and heavy equipment
away from the edge of trench
Use adequate protective systems
Train on hazard recognition and avoiding
unsafe conditions

Notifying the Authorities


Before starting work, OSHA requires:
Determine the approximate location
of underground utilities.
Contact the utility company to inform
them of proposed work and have
them mark location of lines.

Scope and Application


This standard applies to all open
excavations made in the earths
surface. Excavations are defined
to include trenches.

Wag na wag kang


bibili ng magic
sarap o kahit
anung sinigang
mix,
...dahil ang tunay
na sarap, sa akin
mo lang
malalasap.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
PRIOR TO EXCAVATION

Carry out joint site safety inspection with client /


owner, consultant & company representatives.
Identify & locate underground facilities / utilities,
i.e., water / oil / gas pipelines, electric power
lines, telephone lines, sanitary sewer lines.
Municipal Permit Requirements
Excavation Plan
Verify existing utilities
Refer to as built plans
Emergency / Contingency Plan
Public safety

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PRIOR


TO EXCAVATION (contd)

Proximity of adjacent structures


Weather & moisture conditions
Sources of the vibrations
Adjacent road footpaths
Method of excavation
Other possible considerations

General Requirement for


Protection
TRAIN WORKERS
Employees who work in or around
excavations must be provided training
according to their work.
EXPERIENCED SUPERVISOR
An experienced and trained worker is
designated to directly supervise each
excavation project.
- sloping and benching
- shoring requirements
- emergency rescue procedures.

Location of Excavated
Materials and Equipment
Tools and excavated
materials must be piled
in a manner that it
cannot rollback into the
excavation. It must
never be closer than 1
meter from edge of
excavation.
Equipment and heavy
machinery shall not be
place near the edge of
excavation at least 1/3
of its depth.

How Deep is the


Excavation?

Four-foot rule

OSHA requires that


workers have a means to
get in and out of a trench
if it is four or more feet
deep.
You must not have to
travel more than 25 feet
to reach the means of
egress.

How Deep is the


Excavation?

Five-foot rule

OSHA requires protection


from cave-ins by protective
systems unless the
excavation is:
Entirely in stable rock, or
Less than five feet and the

competent person inspects the


excavation and determines
there is no indication of a
potential cave-in.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE)


All workers doing
excavation work must
wear approved safety
footwear and safety
headgear. Additional
PPE is required
depending on the risk
assessment for the
work to be

PUBLIC PROTECTION & TRAFFIC CONTROL

Traffic around the


site must be
controlled, and
barricaded, signs
and/or flag persons
used as needed to
control both
vehicular and
pedestrian traffic.

without BARRICADES

with BARRICADES

PROVISION FOR ACCESS/ EGRESS


Every excavation over 1m

(3ft) deep shall be provided


ladders to facilitate safe
entrance & exit.
A ladder must be located
within 8m (25 ft)of a
workers working position
or at every 16.6m (50ft)
which shall extend at least
0.83 m (26) above the
top of the excavation

0.83 m

Example of a Safe Egress

Example of a Unsafe Egress


This ladder does
not meet the
requirements of the
standard

These two ladders, which are


lashed together, are not an
adequate means of egress.
Ladders should extend three
feet above the top of the
excavation

Paano kayo
magiging
TOGETHER,
...kung wala ka
namang ginagawa
TO-GET-HER.

Excavation
Safety
Inspections

Excavation Safety Inspections

Daily and before the start of work


As work conditions change
After every rainstorm
When fissures, cracks, undercutting,
water seepage, bulging at bottom, etc.
occur
When there is a change in the size,
location or placement of the spoil pile
When there is any indication of change
or movement in adjacent structures

Competent Person
Must have had specific training in
and be knowledgeable about:
Soils classification
The use of protective systems
The requirements of the
standard
Must be capable of identifying
hazards and authorized to
immediately eliminate them.

PPT-011-01

106

Inspections of Excavations
A competent person must make
daily inspections of excavations,
areas around them and
protective systems:
Before work starts and as

needed
After rainstorms, high winds

or other occurrence which


may increase hazards
When you can reasonably

anticipate an employee will


be exposed to hazards
PPT-011-01

107

Inspections of Excavations
If a competent person finds
evidence of a possible cave-in,
indications of failure of protective
systems, hazardous
atmospheres or other hazardous
conditions:
Exposed employees must be
removed from the hazardous area.
Employees may not return until
the necessary precautions have
been taken.

PPT-011-01

108

Sample Daily Inspections


Surface Conditions
Cracks or Cracking
Spoil piles set back 2 from edge
No equipment or material near
edge
No standing water in excavation
No sources of vibration
Banks and Sides of Slope or
Bench
Cracks or Cracking
Spalling
Change in Soil type
Slope adequate for soil
109

Sample Daily Inspections


Shoring and Shielding
In place
No leakage on
hydraulic cylinders
Wedges tight
Access and Egress
Access every 25 feet
Stairs, ladders and
ramp set properly
110

Sample Daily Inspections


Existing Utilities
Support Adequate
Loose Materials
Utilities identified and protected.
Weather
Rain
Typhoon, Storm, Wind
PPE
Reflectorized vests in vehicular
areas
Hard hats, steel-toe shoes, etc.
being used as specified.
111

EQUIPMENT & HANDTOOLS

EQUIPMENT
Backhoe
Bulldozer
Wheel Loader
Grader
Rock Breaker
HANDTOOLS
Shovel
Pickax
Pneumatic

hammer

112