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Boiler Efficiency, Fuel

Economy and Energy

Lecture # 13 & 14
Mujahid Mehdi Abro Indus University Karachi

. Efficiency can be expressed as μ = Wo / Wi    (1) where μ = efficiency Wo = work or power output  Wi = work or power input Efficiency can be expressed as a percentage or as a per-unit decimal fraction of 1.Efficiency : Efficiency is the measure of "usefulness" of an operation. process or machine.

steam .) / heat provided by the fuel x 100  ..Boiler Efficiency : Boiler Efficiency related to the boilers energy output to the boilers energy input can be expressed as: Boiler efficiency (%)      = heat exported by the fluid (water.

. Input Energy:  Fuel oil  Natural Gas  Propane Output Energy:  Process Steam .Boiler Efficiency ….

down and leakages.Blow.Incomplete combustion.FACTORS WHICH EFFECT BOILER EFFICIENCY 1. 3.Excess air.   . 5.  2.Loss due to the heat carried away by hot flue gases.  4.Radiation loss.

Boiler Energy Balance .

2. 6. 4. 7. 3. 5. 8.Energy Savings 1. Boiler type Scaling Economizer Boiler blowdown Steam piping Steam Leaks Flue Gas Analysis Computer Automation .

.Boiler type: The cost to operate a boiler is 4 times the initial installation cost.

Scaling .

Scaling ….. .

000 BTU’s  Water returned to boiler .000.Economizer Example – 500 hp Boiler  20.000.000 BTU  5% recovered with economizer  1.

Boiler Blowdown To removed the dissolved solids that have concentrated in the boiler due to evaporation. Too Much Blowdown  Increased fuel costs  Increased water costs  Increased chemical costs Blow down capacity is 5-10% of boiler .

Old systems  Direct runs  Check for leaks  Check valves .Steam Piping  New vs.

Steam Leaks .

Flue Gas Analysis Tables available by fuel source  Net stack temperature  Excess % Air  Excess % O2  Excess % CO2 .

Computer Automation Monitoring Capabilities Include:            Operating parameters. faults Stack temperature Combustion air temperature Combustion fan RPM Combustion air pressure Efficiency Steam pressure and flow Water temperature Fuel flow Water level Faults and fault history .

Regular Visits/Audits  Internal/Company  Chemical Company  Feed water  Boiler wastewater  Water Softener Company  External Company  Extension. Boiler Supplier .

One way to state this principle is "Energy can neither be created nor destroyed". these energy transformations are constrained by a fundamental principle. However. It may exist in a variety of forms and may be transformed from one type of energy to another.Conservation of Energy Energy can be defined as the capacity for doing work. Another approach is to say that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant even as energy changes from one form to another. the Conservation of Energy principle. .