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Introduction of Boiler

Lecture # 3 & 4
Mujahid Mehdi Abro

Indus University

Basic principle of Steam
Generation

• There. • From there. Steam Generation: • Within the boiler. • Boiler makers have developed various designs to squeeze the most energy out of fuel and to maximized its transfer to the water. • To the left is the basic theoretical design of a modern boiler. . it burns to produce heat. and eventually absorb enough to change into a gaseous state . • The water absorbs the heat.What is steam? When water boils and evaporates at 100°C under atmospheric pressure is called steam. fuel and air are forced into the furnace by the burner.steam. the heat (flue gases) travel throughout the boiler.

. sensors control the amount of water entering the boiler. • It is treated with chemicals to neutralize various minerals in the water. so the process starts again. this water is know as feedwater. to determine if it should keep the burner burning. • As well. at the top. • Not all the water gets turn to steam.• Water enters the boiler. preheated. along with numerous other readings. would cling to the tubes clogging or worst. • Meanwhile. • The hot water naturally circulates through the tubes down to the lower area where it is hot. • The water heats up and flows back to the steam drum where the steam collects. or shut it down. • This would make the boiler expensive to operate because it would not be very efficient. rusting them. which untreated. the control system is taking the temperature of the steam drum. • Water keeps on circulating until it becomes steam. • Feedwater is not your regular drinking water.

The Old Steam Age Steam was the driving force during the days of the industrial revolution and was used to power the giant textile mills. . steam trains and ocean going ships of the time. As the temperature of the water rose. One such steam boiler design was the famous Lancashire Boiler that was the most advanced of it’s time. steam bubbled off the water surface and into the steam pipe. In those days steam boilers were just like the common domestic kettle where a volume of water is heated in a container and steam is ejected through the spout. In this boiler coal was used as fuel to heat two ‘firetubes’ which in turn heated the water that surrounded them.

The Clayton Steam Generator uses only three main components. These components are a special pump. .The New Steam Age Instead of heating a large amount of water and steel . a special water tube coil and a special steam separator.heat a small amount of water and steel. Water is heated as it is pumped through the coil and it is then fed to the to the steam separator to produce very high quality dry steam. This is possible by pumping water through the inside of a small diameter heated coiled tube so that cold water goes in one end and high pressure steam comes out the other.

Understanding Heat Transfer In boiler .

Heat Transfer  Heat always moves from a warmer place to a cooler place.  Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to room temperature.  Hot objects in a cooler room will cool to room temperature. Heat Transfer Methods • Heat transfers in three ways: – Conduction – Convection – Radiation .

the heat travels to the other end. . and so on and so on.Conduction When you heat a metal strip at one end. the vibrations are passed along the metal and so is the heat. the particles vibrate. these vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate. We call this as conduction. As you heat the metal.

Convection What happens to the particles in a liquid or a gas when you heat them? The particles spread out and become less dense. . This effects fluid movement. What is a fluid? A liquid or gas.

?  Radiation travels in straight lines  Radiation can travel through a vacuum  Radiation requires no particles to travel  Radiation travels at the speed of light RADIATION .Radiation How does heat energy get from the Sun to the Earth? There are no particles between the Sun and the Earth so it CANNOT travel by conduction or by convection.

Steam Boiler .

This is most basic definition of boiler.What is boiler? Steam boiler or simply a boiler is basically a closed vessel into which water is heated until the water is converted into steam at required pressure. Purpose of boilers  For generating power in steam engines or steam turbines  In textile industries for sizing and bleaching  For heating the buildings in cold weather and for producing hot water for hot water supply .

shutdown. operation. and safety trapping of plant. Feed Water supply: Provides water as a working medium for conversion to steam. Fuel Supply: Provides the energy source. Control Equipment: Controlling start. .Basic boiler terminologies and definitions Furnace: it is the chamber formed by the space in which combustion takes place. Steam / water separators: Separate water from steam. Size and Capacity: Modular Boilers are small in size and capacity and are often intended to replace a large single boiler with several small boilers. Heating surface: Absorption of heat from furnace.

Working Principle of Boiler The basic working principle of boiler is very simple and easy to understand. Then this steam is piped to the turbine of thermal power plant. to warm up the surroundings etc. The boiler is essentially a closed vessel inside which water is stored. sterilizing equipment. Fuel (generally coal) is bunt in a furnace and hot gasses are produced. . These hot gasses come in contact with water vessel where the heat of these hot gases transfer to the water and consequently steam is produced in the boiler. sanitizing some area. There are many different types of boiler utilized for different purposes like running a production unit.

Waste Heat and Thermic Fluid Heater.Types of boilers used in textile mills List of  boiler machine for Textile Mills and Apparel Industry is  closed vessel in which water or other liquid is heated. Fulton boilers. Stoker Fired. for use external to itself. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion. steam or vapor is generated. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion. steam is superheated. Packaged. Pulverized Fuel. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion. Following are the types of boiler used in textile: • • • • • • • • • • • Fire Tube Boiler for Fashion Industry Water tube boiler. . from electricity or nuclear energy. or any combination thereof. by the direct application of energy from the combustion of fuels. under pressure or vacuum. Fluidized Bed Combustion.

There are mainly two types of boiler used: 1) Firetube boiler 2) Watertube boiler .

the fire tube boiler consists of numbers of tubes through which hot gasses are passed. Actually in fire tube boiler one closed vessel or shell contains water. These fire tubes or hot gas tubes heated up the water and convert the water into steam and the steam remains in same vessel. These hot gas tubes are immersed into water. As the water and steam both are in same vessel a fire tube boiler cannot produce steam at very high pressure . through which hot tubes are passed. in a closed vessel.Fire tube boiler As it indicated from the name.

it requires long time for rising steam at desired pressure.Advantages of Fire Tube Boiler 1) It is quite compact in construction. 3) The steam received from fire tube boiler is not very dry. 2) Fluctuation of steam demand can be met easily. . 2) As the water and steam are in same vessel the very high pressure of steam is not possible. Disadvantages of Fire Tube Boiler 1) As the water required for operation of the boiler is quite large. 3) It is also quite cheap.

This is the basic definition of water tube boiler. .Water tube boiler A water tube boiler is such kind of boiler where the water is heated inside tubes and the hot gasses surround them. Actually this boiler is just opposite of fire tube boiler where hot gasses are passed through tubes which are surrounded by water.

Disadvantages of Water Tube Boiler 1) The main disadvantage of water tube boiler is that it is not compact in construction. 1) Larger heating surface can be achieved by using more numbers of water tubes. 2) Its cost is not cheap. . 3) Very high pressure in order of 140 kg/cm 2 can be obtained smoothly. 3) Size is a difficulty for transportation and construction. movement of water is much faster than that of fire tube boiler.Advantages of Water Tube Boiler There are many advantages of water tube boiler due to which these types of boiler are essentially used in large thermal power plant. 2) Due to convectional flow. hence rate of heat transfer is high which results into higher efficiency.

Comparison of fire tube and water tube boilers Particulars Fire-tube boilers Water-tube boilers Position of water and hot gases Hot gases inside the tubes and water outside the tubes Water inside the tubes and hot gases outside the tubes Mode of firing Generally internally fired Externally fired Operation pressure Limited to 16 bar Can go up to 100 bar Rate of steam production Lower Higher Suitability Not suitable for large power plants Suitable for large power plants Risk on bursting Involves lesser risk of explosion due to lower pressure More risk on bursting due to high pressure Floor area For a given power it occupies more floor area For a given power it occupies less floor area Construction Simple Difficult .

repair and inspection More accessible Requirement of skill Require less skill for efficient and economic working Require more skill and careful attention .Cont… Particulars Fire-tube boilers Water-tube boilers Transportation Simple Difficult Shell diameter Large for same power Small for same power Chances of explosion Less More Treatment of water Not so necessary More necessary Accessibility of various parts Various parts not so easily accessible for cleaning.

Construction and operation of other boilers: Vertical Package: • It consist of a cylindrical shell. the greater portion of which is full of water & remaining is the steam space. . • At the bottom of the fire box is grate on which fuel is burnt and the ash from it falls in the ash pit. • A simple vertical boiler is self-contained & can be easily transported.

ease of operation and less operating and maintenance costs • Commonly used in sugar-mills and textile industries where along with the power steam and steam for the process work is also needed • Consists of cylindrical shell inside which two large tubes are spaced • Shell is constructed with several rings of cylindrical from it is placed horizontally over a brick work which forms several channels for the flow of hot gases • The furnace is placed at the front end of each tube .Lancashire • Reliable. has simplicity of design.

Babcock and Wilcox boilers • It consists of a drum connected to a series of front end and rear end header by short riser tubes • To these headers are connected a series of inclined (15 0 or more) water tubes .