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Lesson 7

Plastics in Packaging
第 7 课 塑料在包装中的应用

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Contents:







Introduction to Plastics
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Extrusion Blow Molding
Injection Blow Molding
Thermoforming
Other Forming Methods
Recognizing Molding Methods
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Polymer Properties Depend On:
1. What elements are in the molecule?
2. What size (molecular weight) is the molecule?
3. Is the molecule polar or non-polar?
4. What shape is the molecule?
5. What is its thermal history?
6. What is its mechanical history?

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Deformation and Thermal History

Room temperature deformation is permanent.
Plastics stretched at about Tg and cooled
slowly are heat stable.
Plastics stretched at about Tg and cooled quickly
have “memory” and will shrink if reheated.

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Plasticating Extruder G e a r re d u c e r Feed hopper F e e d th ro a t H e a te r b a n d s E x it p o rt H o p p e r th ro a t C o o lin g ja c k e t V a r ia b le s p e e d m o to r S c re w 5 .

Cast Film and Sheet Extrusion E x tru d e r E x tr u s io n D ie A d ju s t a b le P r e s s u r e ( R e s t r ic t o r ) B a r A d ju s t a b le D ie L ip s 6 .

Three-Layer Coextrusion E x tru d e r # 1 M a te r ia l # 1 E x tru d e r # 2 M a te r ia l # 2 M a te r ia l # 3 E x tru d e r # 3 7 .

Extrusion Cast Film Line Layout E x tr u s io n d ie C h ill r o ll M a t e r ia l r o ll E x tr u d e r E d g e tr im m e r 8 .

Machine Direction Orientation F ro m e x tru d e r c a s t in g r o lls R o t a t io n x 1 x 2 x 3 X 4 9 .

Cross Direction Orientation E x tr u s io n D ie E x tru d e r C a s t in g R o lls T e n t e r C lip s A n n e a lin g Z o n e 10 .

Blown-film Die Cross-Section B u b b le c o n s t a n t ly p u lle d u p B u b b le F r o s t lin e C o o lin g a ir D ie c o r e C o o lin g a ir D ie lip a d ju s t in g b o lt s D ie B o d y P la s t ic f r o m e x t r u d e r B lo w .u p a ir in le t The die is often rotated to prevent gauge bands 11 .

Three-layer Extrusion Blow Mold Cut-away view film bubble material 1 material 2 material 3 12 .

Blown Film Line With Slitter U p p e r n ip r o lls C o lla p s in g f r a m e P la s t ic f ilm b u b b le I n te r n a l b u b b le c o o lin g A ir r in g E x tru d e r S lit te r D u a l r o ll w in d e r C ir c u la r d ie 13 .

Blown Film Line Showing Die & Bubble 14 .

Injection Molding Extruders 15 .

Injection Molding Machine Mold location Extruder barrel Feed hopper Extruders are sized by their clamping capacity 16 .

Three-Plate Injection Mold 17 .

Three-Plate Injection Mold 18 .

Parts With Attached Runners The distance between the sprue and the gate must be exactly the same for every cavity 9 19 .

Plastic Shrinkage and Sink Marks S in k m a r k S h r in k a g e = fx X 3x In te n d e d d e s ig n 4x S h r in k a g e = 4 fx A c tu a l p a rt p ro d u c e d Most commonly can be seen opposite closure threads Sink marks over cup flange support ribs can cause sealing problems 20 .

Molding Undercuts M a in b o d y r in g P e d e s ta l p lu g B o d y p lu g G a te P e d e s ta l r in g h a lv e s 21 .

Injection Molding Undercuts 22 .

Bottle-Making Bottle-Making Terminology Terminology Finish: That part of a bottle or jar that accepts the closure Parison: An initial shape that will be expanded into a bottle or jar in a second step Preform: Describes the parison when using injection blow-molding Moyle: The pinch-off trim piece from an extrusion blow-molded bottle 23 .

Extrusion Blow Mold N e c k r in g in s e r t M o ld g u id e p in s C o o lin g c h a n n e ls M o ld c a v ity P in c h .o ff in s e r t F la s h p o c k e t 24 .

Extrusion Blow Mold 1 1 2 2 1. Cooling water ports 3. Neck-ring insert 2. Cut-off insert 3 3 25 R .

Extrusion Blow Molding (EBM) 26 .

Injection-Blow Molding Machine 27 .

Handle knock-out 3. Tail or pinch-off trim 28 R .Untrimmed EBM PP Bottle 1 2 3 1. Finish trim 2.

c o r n e r w a ll t h ic k n e s s is s ig n ific a n t ly r e d u c e d 29 .Parison Parison Expansion Expansion & & Wall Wall Thickness Thickness I n it ia l p a r is o n w a ll t h ic k n e s s e x p a n s io n is e q u a l in a ll d ir e c t io n s P a r is o n c o n t in u e s s t r e t c h in g a f t e r th e p a r is o n c e n t e r f r e e z e s E x p a n d in g p a r is o n fr e e z e s th e m o m e n t it t o u c h e s t h e c h ille d m o ld w a ll P a r is o n c o n t in u e s s t r e t c h in g a f t e r th e p a r is o n c e n t e r f r e e z e s A s a r e s u lt .

W a lle d P a r is o n P r o g r a m e d P a r is o n 30 .Parisons and Bottle Wall Thickness U n ifo r m .

w a ll th ic k n e s s 31 .Programmable Parisons V a r ia b le o p e n in g c o n t r o ls p a r is o n .

V. barrier central layer 1 2 3 32 R .Examples of Coextruded Bottles 1 & 2 Reduced pigment on inner layer 3 Three layer bottle with U.

Injection-Blow Molding (IBM) P r e f o r m c a r r ie d o v e r o n c o r e p in A ir In je c tio n m o ld B lo w m o ld open c lo s e d P re fo rm e x p a n d e d t o b lo w m o ld 33 .

Injection-Blow Molding Machine B lo w p o s it io n B lo w m o ld S tr ip p e r p la te r o ta t in g C o re ro d ta b le S t r ip p o s it io n P re fo rm s I n je c t io n m o ld I n je c t io n p o s it io n E x tru d e r 34 .

Injection-Blow Molding Machine 35 .

IBM Preforms and Container 36 R .

Injection-Stretch Blow Molding (ISBM) P r e f o r m a n d c o r e p in c la m p e d in b lo w m o ld C o r e p in m o v e s d o w n . s tr e tc h in g p r e fo r m P r e f o r m b lo w n to c o n ta in e r s h a p e 37 .

ISBM Preforms and Soda Bottles 38 R .

Properties Imposed by Molding 39 R .

g. tooling one mold set two mold sets mold cavities commonly 2 or 3 12 and more possible secondary operations trim and regrind no trim or regrind finish tolerances acceptable precision unique finish designs limited possible handleware common complex thin-wall containers yes no complex multi-layers yes difficult large containers yes (e. drums) limited base design requires pinch-off no pinch-off 40 .M.M. Injection B.EBM and IBM Compared Feature Extrusion B.