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Air or Compressors

Lecture # 23-24
Mujahid Mehdi Abro
University

Indus

Air or Gas compressors
Compressor is a machine
used to compressed air or
gas to a final pressure
exceeding
241.25
KPa
gage.
OR
Compressor is used to
increase the pressure of air
from low pressure to high
pressure by using some
external energy.

USES OF COMPRESSED AIR Operation of small engines Pneumatic tools Industrial cleaning by air blast Tire inflation Paint Spraying Manufacture of plastics and other industrial products  Textile Industry  Lot of use in weaving machine  Compressors are used in wet-processing department       .

Main Components in Compressed Air Systems • Intake air filters • Inter-stage coolers • Air dryers • Moisture drain traps • Receivers .

•Inter-stage Coolers that reduce the temperature of the air before it enters the next stage to reduce the work of compression and increase efficiency. Dust causes sticking valves. .Compressed air systems consist of following major components: •Intake Air Filters that prevent dust from entering a compressor. excessive wear etc. They are normally water-cooled. scoured cylinders.

•Receivers that are provided as storage and smoothening pulsating air output - . •Moisture drain traps that are used for removal of moisture in the compressed air. These traps resemble steam traps. Various types of traps used are manual drain cocks. timer based / automatic drain valves etc.•Air-dryers that remove the remaining traces of moisture after after-cooler as equipment has to be relatively free of any moisture.

Key:NRV = Non Return Valve – a one way valve SV = Safety valve. The final safety valve is usually set 10% above the cylinder maximum working pressure PMV = Pressure maintaining valve – A crucial part of the filtration system usually set to release pressure between 120-160 bars. .

Types of Compressors Type of compressor Positive displacement Reciprocating Rotary Dynamic Centrifugal Axial .

TYPES OF COMPRESSORS WITH RESPECT TO USAGE  Centrifugal Compressors : For low pressure and high capacity application  Rotary Compressors : For medium pressure and low capacity application  Reciprocating Compressors : For high pressure and low capacity application .

it is trapped.Reciprocating Compressor In a reciprocating compressor. these valves act as check valves. and compressed by piston and then discharged into the discharge line. The cylinder valves control the flow of air through the cylinder. . a volume of air is drawn into a cylinder.

Most heavy-duty compressors are double . Double – Acting Compressor  It is a compressor that completes two discharge strokes per revolutions of crankshaft.Types of Reciprocating Compressors There are two compressor types of reciprocating Single – Acting compressor  It is a compressor that has one discharge per revolution of crankshaft.

Parts of Reciprocating Compressor .

Working of Reciprocating Compressor (Discharge) .

Working of Reciprocating Compressor (Discharge) .

.

Working of Double Acting Reciprocating Compressor Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 .

 Increase in volumetric efficiency.  Reduced leakage loss.  Lighter cylinders can be used.Advantage of Double Acting Compressor  Reduction in power required to drive the compressor.  Less difficulty in lubrication due to low working temperature.  Better mechanical balance of the whole unit and uniform torque.  Cheaper materials can be used for .

easy to maintain • Types • Lobe compressor • Screw compressor • Rotary vane / Slide vane .Rotary Compressor • Rotors instead of pistons: continuous discharge • Benefits: low cost. compact. low weight.

 Usually operate at speeds > 3.Centrifugal Compressor  Centrifugal compressors accelerates the velocity of the gases (increases kinetic energy) which is then converted into pressure as the air flow leaves the volute and enters the discharge pipe.  Deliver much higher flow rates than positive displacement compressors .000 rpm.

Casing  Suction Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane that comes into contact with air first. Diffuser Plates. Suction Eyes. Volutes. Seals. Shaft.  Discharge Vane Tips = Part of the impeller vane . Discharge lines. Vanes.Basic Components  Impellers.