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Introduction to turbines

(Steam & Gas)
Lecture # 27-28
Mujahid Mehdi Abro



.Turbines – An Introduction A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into mechanical energy.

Classification of turbines Classification of turbines based on working fluid: 1. Gas turbines . Wind turbine 3. Hydraulic turbines 2. Steam turbines 4.

steam turbines When the working fluid is steam. . turbines are called steam turbines.

INTRODUCTION A steam turbine is a prime mover in which rotary motion is obtained by the gradual change of momentum of the steam. .

WORKING In steam turbine the force exerted on the blades is due to the velocity of the steam. The dynamic pressure of steam rotates the vanes. Curved blades receive a force or impulse by changing the direction of steam. This action of steam is dynamic. buckets or blades. There is some loss of energy by the friction upon the . These blades are curved in such a way that steam enters upon them without shock.

the steam turbine essentially consists of two parts. so that the steam issues from the nozzle with a very high velocity. so that a force acts on the blades due to change of momentum and . 2) The blades: Which change the direction of steam issuing from the nozzle. 1) The nozzle: The nozzle in which the heat energy of high pressure steam is converted in to kinetic energy.PARTS In general.

ASSIFICATION OF STEAM TURBIN i) Impulse turbine turbine ii) Reaction .

IMPULSE: Here impulse means the action of the jet of steam. . impinging on the blades.IMPULSE TURBINE DEFINATION: It is a turbine which turns by the impulse of steam jet.

WORKING The steam is first made to flow through the nozzle. The steam jet after pinging glides over the concave surfaces of the blades and finally leave the turbine by giving it a rotation. . then the steam jet impinges on the turbine blades (curved like buckets) and are mounted on the circumference of the wheel. Here should be noted that the rotation of rotor is due to the impulsive forces of the steam jets.

propels the blades and make them to move.REACTION TURBINE WORKING: In a reaction turbine the steam enters the wheel under pressure and flows over the blades. The backward motion of the . The turbine runner is rotated by the reactive forces of steam jets. The steam while gliding.


and improved version is windmill. . which is run by the turbine itself.GAS TURBINES The idea of gas turbine is oldest one. In order to achieve an efficient working of the turbine the movement of gas (air) is properly controlled and then directed on the blades. The air under pressure is supplied to the turbine by an air compressor. which was used several centuries back.

CLASSIFICATION OF GAS TURBINES There are generally two types of gas turbine: 1) Closed cycle gas turbines 2) Open cycle gas turbines .

OPEN CYCLE GAS TURBINE The open cycle gas turbine consists of a compressor. which drives the generator.CLOSED CYCLE GAS TURBINE Closed cycle gas turbine consists of a compressor. . heating chamber. and a compressor. gas turbine that drives the generator and compressor and a cooling chamber. combustion chamber and a gas turbine.

Components of Gas Turbine : .

A starting motor is used. thereby increasing its pressure.  Gas turbines are not self starting.Air compressor:  The air compressor and turbine are mounted at either end on a common shaft.  The air compressor sucks in air and compresses it. with the combustion chamber between them. .

 Modern gas turbines usually use gaseous fuel. the compressed air combines with fuel and the resulting mixture is burnt. . the better the fuel air mixture burns. natural gas or gas produced artificially by gasification of a solid fuel.Combustion chamber:  In the combustion chamber.  The greater the pressure of air.

 The shaft of the turbine is coupled to a generator. the gas turbine also has stationary and moving blades.  Like in steam turbine.Turbine:  Hot gases move through a multistage gas turbine. .

WORKING The air obtained from the atmosphere is compressed in an air compressor. which produces a rotation. The compressed air is then passed in the combustion chamber where it is heated. The hot air is then allowed to flow over the blades. A major part of power developed is consumed for driving the compressor. The remaining . During this process the air gets expanded and finally it is exhausted.


 Aircraft and ships.Applications of gas turbine:  Drive Pumps. . Compressors And High Speed Cars.  Power generation (used for peak load and as stand-by unit).