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ac and nodal analysis

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Discussion D11.1

Chapter 4

4/10/2006

1

AC Nodal Analysis

2

How did you write nodal equations by inspection? v1 i1 v2 i3 v3 i5 3 .

The gkk terms are the sum of all conductances connected to node k. The ik (the kth component of the vector i) = the algebraic sum of the independent currents connected to node k. The gkj terms are the negative sum of the conductances connected to BOTH node k and node j. gkj = gjk and all of the off-diagonal terms are negative or zero. with currents entering the 4 node taken as positive. .Writing the Nodal Equations by Inspection v1 v3 i1 v2 i5 i3 G1 G2 G2 0 G2 G2 G3 G4 G3 0 v1 G3 v2 G3 G5 v3 Gv i 2 0 i s •The matrix G is symmetric.

5 1 0 1 3 1 v3 1 3 1 3 1 2 0 0 1.333 0.583 0.833 v1 v2 v 3 v1 v2 v 3 2 0 1 2 0 1 5 .333 0.Example with resistors v1 v2 1 11 2 1 1 1 4 1 3 0 1.

For steady-state AC circuits we can use the same method of writing nodal equations by inspection if we replace resistances with impedances and conductances with admittances. Let's look at an example. 6 .

31 in text Change impedances to admittances 7 .Problem 4.

24345o V1 o V2 5. 1 j / 2 j/2 1 j 0.5 j 0.831121 8 .5 j 0.5 j 0.5 V1 V2 j / 2 j / 2 2 4 V1 V2 2 4 4.

5 j 0.24345o V1 o V2 5.5 V1 V2 2 4 4.Matlab Solution 1 j 0.5 j 0.831121 9 .5 j 0.

10 . assume temporarily that the current through the voltage source is known and write the equations by inspection.Nodal Analysis for Circuits Containing Voltage Sources That Can’t be Transformed to Current Sources • If a voltage source is connected between two nodes.

Problem 4.33 in text Note: V2 = 10 assume I2 1/ 2 j / 4 j / 4 j / 4 j / 4 V1 V2 6 45 I 2 645 1/ 2 j / 4 j / 4 V1 I j / 4 10 j/4 2 11 .

5 j 2.5 645 j / 4 V1 j 2.25 I 5.743 j 2.5 j 0.25 0 V1 j 0.5 0.25 1 I 2 AX = B 1 X=A B 4.4 2 12 . 1/ 2 j / 4 j / 4 j / 4 j / 4 645 V1 I 10 2 1/ 2 j / 4 V1 j 2.243 j 6.5 V1 14.5 I 2 1/ 2 j / 4 0 V1 I j / 4 1 2 645 j 2.2531.846 108.

25 2 13 .2531.33 in text Note: V2 = 10 assume I2 V1 14.25 I 5.4 2 V1 I0 7.Problem 4.846 108.12531.

846 108.4 2 14 .Matlab Solution 1/ 2 j / 4 0 V1 I j / 4 1 2 645 j 2.5 j 2.25 I 5.2531.5 V1 14.

AC Mesh Analysis 15 .

How did you write mesh equations by inspection? 16 .

The vk (the kth component of the vector v) = the algebraic sum of the independent voltages in mesh k. rkj = rjk and all of the off-diagonal terms are negative or zero. with voltage rises taken as positive. 17 .Writing the Mesh Equations by Inspection Ri = v R1 R5 R7 R7 R5 0 R7 R2 R6 R7 0 R5 0 R3 R5 R6 0 Vs2 i1 i2 0 i3 Vs1 R4 R6 R8 i4 Vs1 0 R6 0 •The matrix R is symmetric. The rkk terms are the sum of all resistances in mesh k. The rkj terms are the negative sum of the resistances common to BOTH mesh k and mesh j.

Example with resistors Ri = v 4 2 4 1 4 3 2 4 1 0 0 2 1 0 2 3 1 0 0 2 4 1 0 i1 i2 i3 i4 4 0 2 2 18 .

19 .For steady-state AC circuits we can use the same method of writing mesh equations by inspection if we replace resistances with impedances and conductances with admittances. Let's look at an example.

Problem 4.79518.6 20 .38 in text: Find I1 and I2 2 j1 1 j1 1 j1 1 j 0 I1 I 2 12 6 3.683 116.43o I1 o I 2 2.

Matlab Solution 2 j1 1 j1 1 j 1 1 j 0 I1 I 2 12 6 3.79518.43o I1 o I 2 2.683 116.6 21 .

h. Assume temporarily that the voltage across each current source is known and write the mesh equations in the same way we did for circuits with only independent voltage sources. 2.What happens if we have independent current sources in the circuit? 1. Express the current of each independent current source in terms of the mesh currents and replace one of the mesh currents in the equations. 22 .s of the equality. Rewrite the equations with all unknown mesh currents and voltages on the left hand side of the equality and all known voltages on the r. 3.

40 in text: Find I0 Assume you know V2 Note I2 = -2 3 j1 2 j 2 2 j 2 2 j 2 3 j1 2 j 2 2 j 2 2 j 2 I1 I 2 6 V 2 6 I1 V 2 2 23 .Problem 4.

53 24 .414 81. 3 j1 2 j 2 2 j 2 2 j 2 6 I1 V 2 2 3 j1 I1 4 j 4 6 2 j 2 I1 4 j 4 V2 3 j1 0 I1 2 j 2 1 V2 AX = B 2 j4 4 j 4 1 X=A B 1.87o I1 X o V2 7.37612.

Matlab Solution 3 j1 0 I1 2 j 2 1 V2 2 j4 4 j 4 1.37612.53 25 .87o I1 o V2 7.414 81.

47o 26 .53 I 0 I1 I 2 I1 2 I 0 1.414 81.37612.Problem 4.87 20 2.608 32.40 in text: Find I0 Assume you know V2 Note I2 = -2 1.87o I1 o V 2 7.414 81.

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