Reverse Engineering

By: Rohit Jain(2009196) Rani Treasa Joseph (2009209) Sachin Sood (2009219) Rajkumar (2009207) Rahul Gulia(2009247) Pujan(2009246) Group-8 Section D

INTRODUCTION
Intense competition - Constantly seeking new ways to shorten lead times. Engineering - Process of designing, manufacturing, assembling, and maintaining products and systems. Forward and Reverse The process of duplicating an existing part, subassembly, or product, without drawings, documentation, or a computer model - Reverse engineering

Why, Reverse engineering?
The original manufacturer no longer exists The original manufacturer of a product no longer produces the product The original product design documentation has been lost or never existed Creating data to refurbish or manufacture a part for which there are no CAD data Inspection and/or Quality Control Some bad features of a product need to be eliminated Strengthening the good features of a product based on long-term usage Analyzing the good and bad features of competitors products Exploring new avenues to improve product performance and features

HOW?

Reverse Engineering ± The Process

The Generic Process

Phase 1±Scanning
Contact Scanners Use sensing devices with mechanical arms, coordinate measurement machines (CMM), and computer numerical control (CNC) machines, to digitize a surface.

Phase 1±Scanning
Non contact Scanners Optical scanning device
2-D cross-sectional images and point clouds that represent the geometry of an object are captured by projecting energy sources (light, sound, or magnetic fields) onto an object

PHASE II ± POI T PROCESSI G
Point Cloud Processing

PHASE II ± POI T PROCESSI G
Multiple scan alignment

Phase iii- Application Geometric Model Development
Polygonisation
Reconstruction recovers the triangulated surface from the 3-D point cloud data

procedure for data acquisition in a destructive RE system

A procedure for data acquisition in a destructive RE system.
(a) The part and matrix combination is embedded in a contrasting colored plastic matrix. (b, c) The part is machined layer-by-layer to expose the cross-sectional images. (d) The newly exposed surface of the part.

Computer Aided reverse engineering

RAPID prototyping
A class of technologies that are used to produce physical objects layerby-layer directly from computer-aided design (CAD) data

Reverse engineering in automotive industry
1. To create free-form shapes that are difficult to model in CAD software 2. To overcome obstacles in data exchange and data integrity 3. To speed up innovation in such areas as ergonomic design, retro-inspired design, combustion design, and aerodynamics 4. To ensure quality and performance - computeraided inspection and engineering analysis.
Ferrari 550 Maranello body reverse engineered in Geomagic Studio software and assembled and visualized in Pro/E software

Aligned and merged point clouds of Ferrari 550

Reverse engineering in aerospace industry
1. To create legacy parts and hard tooling that do not have CAD models 2. To overcome obstacles in data exchange and data integrity 3. To resolve and correct problems arising from
Top view of as-built compared to as-designed.

discrepancies between the CAD master model and the actual tooling or as-built part 4. To ensure quality and performance through computer-aided inspection and engineering analysis
An HTML report of a sheet metal part and a PDF report of an intake turbine

Reverse engineering in MEDICAL industry
1. Measure hardware that captures human anatomy 2. Output manufacturable digital data that combines the human form and product function and fit. 3. Fabrication system 4. New materials: Improve materials developed for new fabrication systems
Scanned point cloud data, a polygonal model, and a model showing stress analysis developed for a knee replacement At left, an ear impression. At right, the digital shell created using an RE software developed for a hearing device

Reverse engineering in IT INDUSTRY
RE in integrated circuits/smart cards The attacker grinds away layer by layer of the smart card and takes pictures with an electron microscope - reveals the complete hardware and software part of the smart card Reverse engineering of software Going backwards through the development cycle - output of the implementation phase (in source code form) is reverse-engineered back to the analysis phase .

Reverse engineering in IT INDUSTRY
Tools a reverse engineer uses: Debugger Fault injection Disassembler Decompiler There are three kinds of reverse engineering analyses: White-box analysis Black-box analysis Gray-box analysis

Clean ROOM

reVERSE ENGINEERING IN the SEMI CONDUCTOR InDUSTRY
Reverse engineering of semiconductor-based products can broadly take several forms:
Product teardowns System level analysis Hardware System Analysis Software System Analysis Circuit extraction
± ± ± ± ± ± ± Package removal (known in the industry as device depot ) De-layering Imaging Annotation Schematic read-back Analysis

Process analysis

Legal Aspects of Reverse Engineering
Competitive technical intelligence Used to determine whether a competitor's product contains patent infringements or copyright infringements. Legality: 1. Obtain legitimately 2. No need to reverse-engineer items which are patented. 3. Interoperability is believed to be legal

Thank you !!