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Process Engineering Group

Model Robustness

Rajalingam R

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Scope

1) Importance of Model Robustness


2) Tools for making models robust
3) Model Identification - DMC
FIR Identification
Subspace identification
4) Model Robustness

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Importance of Model Robustness


Example
Equation

Solution

Condition No: 23957 - ILL Conditioned

Condition No: 3.5 - Well Conditioned


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Model Robustness

Model Robustness is important from mathematical stability.

Model Identification: Finite Impulse Response (FIR) and Subspace


FIR is Multiple input and Single Output Model (MISO)
Subspace is Multiple input Multiple Output Model (MIMO)
Model Uncertainty:
Time Domain and Frequency Domain Analysis
Correlations:
Auto correlation & Cross correlation analysis
Condition number and RGA:
Condition Number
Relative Gain analysis

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Model Identification

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Model identification : Finite Impulse Response and Subspace


Model Identification
Finite Impulse Response Identification (FIR ID)
What is FIR ID?
FIR ID parameters
Subspace Identification (SS ID)
What is SS ID?
SS ID parameters
FIR ID vs. SS ID

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Linear Models
Structure

Empirical/data-based

Mathematical Linear/non-linear
form

First principles
Linear/non-linear

Examples of Linear models:


Static pressure with respect to depth of liquid
Volume of a vertical cylinder with respect to level
Examples of Non-linear models:
In distillation column, the change in purity with Reboiler Duty will be more when
Reflux Ratio is small; and vice versa
Linearization
If non-linear, then use a suitable transform (like LOG transform) to make the
relation linear.

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Benefits of Linear models

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Benefits of Linear models

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Benefits of Linear models

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Benefits of Linear models


1

A1

A2

12

12

12

12

CV4

CV5

CV6

CV7

9
6
2

CV
CV0

CV1

CV2

CV3

I1 +1 I1,1

I2

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+1

I2,1

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Identification

CV = A * I, I=MV
Calculate
Known

Known
CV1 a1
CV a
2

2
CV3 a3


CV4 a 4
CV5 a 4


CV6 a 4
CV a
7

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4
a4

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4

a1
a2

a3
a 4

I1
I
* 2
I3

I
4

Identification
Preservation of Scale
Response to a change in the independent:
CV4

CV3
CV2

Dep.
CV0
Time

Ind.

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a4

a3
CV1
0

CV5

a5

a2
a1
2

CV1 - CV0
CV2 - CV0
CV3 - CV0
CV4 - CV0
CV5 - CV0
CV6 - CV0
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=
=
=
=
=
=

a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a5
13

* (I)
* (I)
* (I)
* (I)
* (I)
* (I)
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Identification

6
4

CV

-1
-2
-5

-7

-7

-8
-12
-14

Time
Ind.

-14

+1
-2
0

CV1 CV0 1* (1)

CV2 CV0 4 * (1) 1* (0)

CV3 CV0 6 * (1) 4 * (0) 1* (-2) 4


2

CV4 CV0 7 * (1) 6 * (0) 4 * (-2) -1


CV5 CV0 7 * (1) 7 * (0) 6 * (-2) -5
CV6 CV0 7 * (1) 7 * (0) 7 * (-2) -7
CV7 CV0 7 * (1) 7 * (0) 7 * (-2) -7

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Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Identification

Any impulse can be represented like this: {1,0,0,..0}


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Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Identification


Output vector can be written as a combination of inputs vector:
y[t] = h0 x[t] + h1 x[t-1] + h2 x[t-3]+ + hk-1 x[t-(k-1)] + hk x[t-k]
x[t] change in independent variable
y[t] change in dependent variable
k = Time to Steady State
t = time
We usually assume that h0= 0, i.e., the system

does not react immediately to the input.


Now, by least square objective function, we can find
out the step response coefficients {h 0,h1,h2,,hk}

where N = total number of samples in a dataset

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FIR IDStep Response Coefficients

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FIR IDstep response coefficients


Any step response can be represented as superposition of various impulses:
{1,1,1.,1} = {1,0,0,,0} + {0,1,0,,0} + {0,0,1,0} + . { 0,0,0,1}
{0,h1,h2,h3,,0} + {0,0,h1,h2,h3,0} + {0,0,0,h1,h2,h3,0} + . { 0,0,0,hn}
Impulse response coefficients

Step response coefficients

Step-Response coefficients
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FIR Identification: The A Matrix


Steps to determine the unit step response(s)
During a test period, collect time-stamped process data
from the system for all independent and dependent
variables
From the collected data, calculate CV and I
Solve the control equation, CV = A * I, for the unit step
response coefficients, the A matrix

FIR Identification
Equations for predicting the linear system

CV1 CV0 (I1 I0 ) * a1


CV2 CV0 (I2 I1 ) * a1 (I1 I0 ) * a 2
CV3 CV0 (I3 I2 ) * a1 (I2 I1 ) * a 2 (I1 I0 ) * a3
CV4 CV0 (I4 I3 ) * a1 (I3 I2 ) * a 2 (I2 I1 ) * a3 (I1 I0 ) * a 4
CV5 CV0 (I5 I4 ) * a1 (I4 I3 ) * a 2 (I3 I2 ) * a3 (I2 I1 ) * a 4 (I1 I0 ) * 0

Process reaches steady-state


after 4 intervals. So, there are
only 4 a coefficients.

FIR Identification: Step-Response Form


Step-Response Form of the Identification Problem
CV1 CV0 (I1 I0 ) * a1
CV2 CV0 (I2 I1 ) * a1 (I1 I0 ) * a 2
CV3 CV0 (I3 I2 ) * a1 (I2 I1 ) * a 2 (I1 I0 ) * a3
CV4 CV0 (I4 I3 ) * a1 (I3 I2 ) * a 2 (I2 I1 ) * a3 (I1 I0 ) * a 4
CV5 CV0 (I5 I4 ) * a1 (I4 I3 ) * a 2 (I3 I2 ) * a3 (I2 I1 ) * a 4

CV1 a1
CV a
2

2
CV3 a3


CV4 a 4
CV5 a 4


CV6 a 4
CV a
7

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4
a4

a1
a2
a3
a4
a4

a1
a2

a3
a 4

I1
I
* 2
I3

I
4

CV1 I1
CV I
2

2
CV3 I3


CV4 I4
CV5 I5


CV6 I6
CV I
7

Complete equations
(useful)

I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6

I1
I2
I3
I4
I5

I1
I2

I3
I4

a1
a
* 2
a3

a4

FIR Identification Bad Data


A period of bad data should not invalidate the entire data set
In the step-form of the algorithm
CV0 appears in each equation
Only one continuous section of data can be analyzed using this algorithm step
response algorithm
Bad data within a data set invalidates the data set
Process problem/upset
Computer problem
Hardware/instrumentation failure
Valve saturation
Atypical disturbance

Other forms of the algorithm eliminate CV0?

FIR Identification Impulse Form (1)


CV1 CV0 (I1 I0 ) * a1
CV2 CV0 (I2 I1 ) * a1
- CV1 CV0

(I1 I0 ) * a 2
(I1 I0 ) * a1

CV2 CV1 (I2 I1 ) * a1

(I1 I0 ) * (a 2 - a1 )

CV3 CV0 (I3 I2 ) * a1

(I2 I1 ) * a 2

- CV2 CV0

Subtract pairs of

(I2 I1 ) * a1

equations to
(I1 I0 ) * a3
(I1 I0 ) * a 2

CV3 CV2 (I3 I2 ) * a1

(I2 I1 ) * (a2 a1 )

(I1 I0 ) * (a3 a 2 )

CV4 CV0 (I4 I3 ) * a1

(I3 I2 ) * a 2

(I2 I1 ) * a3

- CV3 CV0

(I3 I2 ) * a1

(I2 I1 ) * a 2

remove CV0

(I1 I0 ) * a 4
(I1 I0 ) * a3

CV4 CV3 (I4 I3 ) * a1

(I3 I2 ) * (a 2 a1 )

(I2 I1 ) * (a3 a 2 )

(I1 I0 ) * (a 4 a3 )

CV5 CV0 (I5 I4 ) * a1

(I4 I3 ) * a 2

(I3 I2 ) * a3

(I2 I1 ) * a 4

(I1 I0 ) * a 4

(I2 I1 ) * a3

(I1 I0 ) * a 4

- CV4 CV0
CV5 CV4 (I5 I4 ) * a1

(I4 I3 ) * a1
(I4 I3 ) * (a 2 a1 )

(I3 I2 ) * a 2
(I3 I2 ) * (a3 a 2 )

(I2 I1 ) * (a 4 a3 )

FIR Identification Impulse Form (2)


Define bi as the impulse coefficient: ai - ai-1
b1 a1
b 2 a 2 a1
b3 a3 a 2
b 4 a 4 a3

Now, the impulse-form of the DMCplus Model equations


CV1 CV0 (I1 I0 ) * b1
CV2 CV1 (I2 I1 ) * b1 (I1 I0 ) * b 2
CV3 CV2 (I3 I2 ) * b1 (I2 I1 ) * b 2 (I1 I0 ) * b3
CV4 CV3 (I4 I3 ) * b1 (I3 I2 ) * b 2 (I2 I1 ) * b3 (I1 I0 ) * b 4
CV5 CV4 (I5 I4 ) * b1 (I4 I3 ) * b 2 (I3 I2 ) * b3 (I2 I1 ) * b 4

FIR Identification: Impulse Response Model


Characteristics
Benefit:
Data Slicing is Allowed: Change in the dependent variable is only a
function of the past changes in independent variables for a time equal
to the time to steady-state

Penalty:
Additional noise results from taking the derivative of the dependent
variable

FIR Identification:
Simultaneous Independent Variable Moves

In a typical process, it is generally impossible to hold an independent step


for a full time to steady-state without other movement in other independent
variables
Operations needs to make a move
Feedforward, disturbance, variable moves

A simple, straight-forward solution to the control problem will not handle


these additional moves
We need a solution method that is tolerant of multiple moves within a single
Tss

FIR Identification:
Simultaneous Identification of Models

Multiple Input, Single Output (MISO)

CV1 I1,1
CV I
2
1,2

CV3 I1,3

CV
4
I1,4

CV5 I1,5


CV6 I1,6
CV I
7

1,7
CV8 I1,8
CV I
9

1,9

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6
I1,7
I1,8

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6
I1,7

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7
I2,8
I2,9

Simultaneous
identification
of model
coefficients

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7
I2,8

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7

I2,1
I2,2

I2,3
I2,4

I2,5
I2,6

b1,1
b
1,2
b1,3

b
1,4
*
b2,1

b
2,2
b
2,3
b2,4

FIR Identification:
Simultaneous Identification of Models

FIR Identification: Simultaneous Identification

First, lets convert the control equation to a


residual form: CV - A * I = R
CV1 I1,1
CV I
2
1,2

CV3 I1,3

CV
4
I1,4

CV5 I1,5


CV6 I1,6
CV I
7

1,7
CV8 I1,8
CV I
9

1,9

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6
I1,7
I1,8

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6
I1,7

I1,1
I1,2
I1,3
I1,4
I1,5
I1,6

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7
I2,8
I2,9

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7
I2,8

I2,1
I2,2
I2,3
I2,4
I2,5
I2,6
I2,7

I2,1
I2,2

I2,3
I2,4

I2,5
I2,6

r1
b1,1
b r2
1,2 r
b1,3 3

r4
b
1,4
*
r
b2,1 5

r6
b
2,2
b r7
2,3 r8
b2,4
r9

FIR Identification: Simultaneous Identification Solution

Now, we can use a Least Squares regression method to solve for


the response coefficients while minimizing R2
Calculate the sum of the squared residual terms:

r T r r12 r22 r32 r42 r52 r62 r72 r82 r92


ri 2
Sum of Squared Residuals

FIR Identification: Simultaneous Identification


Summary
Benefit
Simultaneous solution allows for changes in more than one
independent at a time during the test

Implication/Penalty
Identifying the individual responses requires uncorrelated movement in
the independent variables during the plant test
Models are identified simultaneously so changing the list of
independents may change the model coefficients

FIR Identification Design Criteria


A period of bad data should not invalidate the entire
data set
Solve the impulse-form rather than the step-form of the
algorithm

More than one independent variable should be allowed


to change at the same time
Solve

for

all

independent/CV

response

simultaneously as a least-squares MISO problem

coefficients

FIR parameters
1. Time to steady state (TTSS)
2. Number of coefficients
3. Smoothing factor

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FIR Identification Parameters


Process settling time (steady-state time)
Length of the step response models in time

Number of coefficients
More coefficients required for accurate modeling of fast responses (less time
between coefficients)

Smoothing
Penalty for change from one coefficient to next
Model fit is not significantly degraded

Build the Controller Model: Number of Model Coefficients


The number of model coefficients, or the number of points used to draw the
line is related to the controller execution frequency and the T ss:

Controller Execution
Interval

Data

Time to Steady State

* Collection
Number of Model Coefficients

Interval

Control interval needs to be fast enough so that the controller can respond to
the fastest measured/ unmeasured independent disturbances in the system
Ideally, the controller is running fast enough that it has 5 to 10 executions to handle
a disturbance before it becomes a problem

Build the Controller Model: Number of Model Coefficients

FIR parametersNumber of Coefficients


It decides oversampling ratio in model identifications.
Sampling time = Settling time / Step-response coefficients

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FIR parametersNumber of Coefficients

Notice gain mismatch in FIR & SS

FIR and SS results now match better

Oversampling Ratio = 1

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Oversampling Ratio = 2

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FIR parametersSmoothing Factor


FIR smoothing algorithm will adversely affect model responses with faster initial
dynamics, like valve positions. We can use un-smoothed response models
instead, and use curve operations to remove noise and squiggles from the model.

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FIR parametersSmoothing Factor

SF= 5

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SF= 0.01

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Time Domain Approach


FIR ID is time domain approach. Consider the following equations:

Given the complexity of differential equations, why would we ever want to work in the time
domain?
The Laplace transform moves us out of the time-domain into the complex frequency domain, so
that
we can study and manipulate our systems as algebraic polynomials instead of linear ODEs.
(1 + 2s + 5s2)X(s) = (1 + s)Y(s)
That's right, the Laplace transform is hiding the fact that we are actually dealing with second-order
differential equations. In the Laplace or time domain, if we want to account for systems with
multiple inputs and multiple outputs, we are going to need to rely on the principle of
superposition to create a system of simultaneous Laplace equations (or time-domain based
equations) for each output and each input. For such systems, the classical approach doesn't
simplify the situation in MIMO case.
FIR models are Single input single output models (SISO) and can be extended for
Multiple input single output (MISO). So, a case containing multiple CVs is run as
combination of MISO models for each CV.
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State-space Approach
It turns out that if we decompose our higher-order differential equations into multiple first-order
equations, we can find a new method for easily manipulating the system in MIMO models. The
solution to this problem is state space approach.
State
Central to the state-space notation is the idea of a state. A state of a system is the current value
of internal elements of the system, that change separately to (but not completely unrelated to)
the output of the system. Here are some examples:
Consider a chemical reaction where certain reagents are poured into a mixing container, and the output is the amount of the
chemical product produced over time. The state variables may represent the amounts of un-reacted chemicals in the container,
or other properties such as the quantity of thermal energy in the container (that can serve to facilitate the reaction).

We denote the input variables with u, the output variables with y, and the state variables with x. In essence,
we have the following relationship:
y = f(x, u)
Where f(x, u) is our system. Also, the state variables can change with respect to the current state and the
system input:
x' = g(x, u)
Where x' is the rate of change of the state variables.

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State Definition
State variables = memory elements = contains all the information from the
past that is relevant for predicting the future
If we describe system as an operating mapping from the space of input to
the space of output, then we may need the entire input-output history of
the systems together with the planned input in order to compute future
output values. Alternatively, we may use state variables which has all
history of input and Output variables.
Order of model = number of states (n)

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CVs Auto-grouping in Subspace identification


Subspace is MIMO model identification; but when number of unrelated CVs are large in
case, then it increases computation time, and benefits were limited compared to running
multiple smaller cases.
The subspace identification algorithm can optimize case runs by using CV grouping. The
CV cross correlation is used to determine groups of CV that share common dynamics,
and create internal sub-case for those related CVs (MIMO for each internal sub case).
By keeping related CVs together the underlying states will be identified with more
certainty. By removing unrelated CVs the computation time per subgroup is decreased.
CV grouping alternatives
1)Group Related CVs (Auto-grouping, Default) maximum of 10 CVs for one sub-case
2)One CV per Group (Forced MISO ID) with this option, the users are able to compare
the MISO subspace ID with the FIR ID in a similar internal setup
3)All CVs in One Group (Forced Large MIMO ID) set as one large MIMO
4)Set Maximum CV Group Size (MIMO ID with certain number CVs per group) gives
flexibility to modify the default maximum CVs of 10 per group
Allows users to gain/validate their knowledge about the CVs correlation in their
process, compare models with different setups, and retune the default parameters when
necessary.
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CVs Auto-grouping in Subspace identification

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Time to steady state in Subspace identification


Theoretically, TTSS value have no direct impacts on the subspace ID, because TTSS is
not a dependent parameter in subspace ID and it only determines how many model curve
coefficients will be generated from a subspace model identified.
However, Detrending filters that will be calculated upon TTSS values affect Subspace ID
for different TTSS.

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Time to steady state in Subspace identification

All parameters are the same


except TTSS.

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Time to steady state in Subspace identification

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Maximum states per CV group: Subspace identification


States do not necessarily have a direct physical interpretations, but they have a
conceptual relevance.
Maximum states per CV group, which is an upper bound of the model order (i.e.
maximum number of states allowed) for each CV group sub-case.
This parameters allows user to set a model order search range, or force the subspace
algorithm to fit a low-order model with truncation error
When to reduce the maximum states per CV group?

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Maximum states per CV group: Subspace identification

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Maximum states per CV group: Subspace identification

High-frequency dynamic behavior of model is caused by a high model order, and a model
reduction can help to damp the high frequency noise.

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Maximum states per CV group: Subspace identification

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Maximum order per I/O pair: Subspace identification


This parameter is the identification horizon used in the identification. It is exactly
the number of data points in the future and past data horizon. The larger the
Maximum order per I/O pair, the higher order model will be identified in order to
cover longer (complex) dynamics. The computation will also be heavier.

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Maximum order per I/O pair: Subspace identification


If very different maximum order per I/O are used in subspace case, then even if the same
final model order is selected, the calculated models are bound to be different
.
The amount of data used for initializing the identification run depends on maximum order
(not the final order it eventually selects), so if you select a high max order, more data is
lost. If useful data is lost, (e.g. the only big step you have) then the model can degrade. If
bad data is lost, then the model can actually improve. So as before with DMI, be careful
with slicing. At least you lose much less data than before.
Let's assume max order = n. Then n previous n data points are then used to predict the
next n steps into the future. The cost function is determined from the difference between
predicted CV's and observed CV's over these n steps. This means that a high max order
favors the long term prediction accuracy, while lower max orders will favor the short term
prediction accuracy of the models.

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Maximum order per I/O pair: Subspace identification

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Maximum order per I/O pair: Subspace identification

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Maximum order per I/O pair: Subspace identification

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Drift Removal - Subspace


All process units are disturbed by
several drift disturbances.
Drift disturbances are kind of
disturbances for which you dont
have measure, and it is not possible to
include them as FF signal. Because of
these drift disturbances, your process
gain changes over time.
Example: in heat exchanger, process
stream is being heated by MP steam.
Now, heat exchanger will be
progressively fouling. So over a
period time , heat transfer coefficient
will come down, and for the same
amount of steam change (say 1tph);
temperature change of the outlet
process steam will not be the same
(will be the less as more and more
fouling happens).

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Data Pre-processing: Subspace identification


Available option on data preprocessing are listed below:
1)Detrending
2)Differencing
3)Zero-mean
4)Double Diff
Detrending: Process test data often contains low frequency drift that is introduced by unknown disturbances. These low
frequency disturbances will create negative impacts on identification and has to be eliminated. The option Detrending is
designed to do that job.
Assume a measured signal can be divided into a process signal and a trend signal.
The pre-process of data with Detrending will estimate the trend signal and remove it from the system . By default, the timeconstant of Detrending filter is calculated based on the cases TTSS:

Basis for 3*TTSS and 6*TTSS - how much Detrending filter should be used?
If central average is calculated over a period of 3*TTSS, then filter operation tends to remove only slow drift
disturbances and leave dynamic information mostly intact. A too small TTSS value for a case may lead to an overDetrending that may remove useful dynamic information from the data and cause inaccurate models.

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Data Pre-processing: Subspace identification

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Data Pre-processing: Subspace identification


Differencing: y=x(t+1) x(t)
Similar to Detrending, differencing is also intended to remove slow drifts from the process data. The
FIR model ID has been using differencing as a data pre-processing strategy since the DMC was first
built. Differencing can remove the slow disturbance, but it reduces Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio.
Therefore, for better model gains and less stringent requirements on S/N, the Detrending is
recommended in place of differencing.
Zero mean: It simply removes only an offset from raw data. It should be aware that there will be
multiple offsets if data consists of several slices. The Zero-mean operation will be performed on each
data slices.

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Data Pre-processing: Subspace identification


Double Differencing: z = y (t+1) y (t) = x(t+1)- x(t) x(t) +x (t-1)
= x(t+1) 2 x(t) + x (t-1)
Double differencing was originally designed for Ramp and Pseudo-Ramp CV in FIR
ID operation. For subspace ID, it is no longer the only way to preprocess Ramp
CVs. Either Differencing or Double Differencing as an option was selected, a single
Differencing will be first applied to a Ramp or Pseudo-Ramp CV.
In addition, Ramp CV or Pseudo-Ramp CV are always put into one or more Ramp
CV group by the Auto-grouping algorithm in order to separate Ramp CVs from nonRamp CVs.

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Over Sampling Ratio: Subspace identification

In the case where the process data are collected in a


high frequency sampling and the final model for on-line
control will be run in slower control sampling frequency, a
value of greater than one can be used to match the
models
sampling
rate
with
the
controllers
measurements. Eg GC analyzers

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Over Sampling Ratio: Subspace identification

Last curve is with


SR=10, and it is lagging
behind SR=1 curve
The model you get by setting Over-Sampling Ratio = 1 will
have less precise gain but less delay with the dynamics.
Dynamic delay means the model calculated by SS is
slower than real system

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Direct Term (D-matrix): Subspace identification

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Case with non-existent inverse response

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Case with non-existent initial kick

In Valve O/P, D term must.

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Data Slicing FIR vs. Subspace


In subspace algorithm, how much data loss will happen on data
slicing depends on the maximum order (n) per I/O pair. n data points
are lost after each bad slice.
In FIR algorithm, how much data loss will happen on data slicing
depends on the time to steady state (Tss). Data of time period equal
to one Time to Steady state is lost after each bad slice.

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Identification speed FIR /SS ID


Subspace identification takes more computation time than the FIR
identification, in particular for models with a large number of independent
and dependent variables.
This occurs because the subspace identification does a true multi-input
multi-output (MIMO) model identification that needs more intensive
computation than the multi-input single-output (MISO) FIR identification.
The benefit is that a true MIMO model has less uncertainty, and is
statistically more accurate.
The computation time has a cubical relation with the Maximum Order.

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FIR ID / SS ID Summary
FIR algorithm is like curve-fitting (non-parametric) , Subspace
algorithm is finding parameter for pre-defined model structure.
Automatic model order determination- SS ID auto-determines the
optimal model order, to capture balanced high and low frequency
dynamics , without over-fitting; whereas in FIR ID model order is pre.
specified
based on TTSS and number of coefficients. The goodness of
data fitting is the only objective of FIR ID.
FIR is MISO, SS is truly MIMO.
FIR fails when S/N is low, SS performs better
Efficient Slicing SS ID is more efficient in term of slicing.
However, because of high degree of freedom that a FIR model can
offer when fitting a model to a dataset, the FIR models can easily
capture high order effects.

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Model Robustness

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Model Uncertainty
When we measure some physical quantity with an instrument and obtain a
numericalvalue,wewanttoknowhowclosethisvalueistothe truevalue.
The difference between the true value and the measured value is the error.
Unfortunately,thetrue valueisingeneralunknownandunknowable.Since
thisisthecase,theexacterrorisneverknown.Wecanonlyestimateerror.

Theres no such thing as a perfect measurement!!

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Bode Plot Frequency Domain Uncertainty


Bode plot (or frequency response) of any dynamic system, is defined as the
magnitude (same as amplitude) of the sine wave observed in a specific CV, for a
constant frequency sine wave with a peak amplitude of 1.0 in the particular MV. As
the frequency of sine wave varies from the real slow (smaller TTSS) to very fast
(larger TTSS), the amplitude of the sine wave varies in the CV significantly.

Input: c(t) = A sint


For simple first order system
G(s) = Kp/(s+1)
Output will be : y(t) = A sin(t + )
Where A = f( A, ,, Kp)

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Bode Plot Frequency Domain Uncertainty

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Time Domain Uncertainty

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Uncertainty Results

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Uncertainty Results

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Uncertainty Results

The first inverse response is in red zone, and it is good to approximate


as dead time.

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Importance of Model Uncertainty analysis during Step Test:


1) Used to monitor how accurate step test is going on
2) Used to find out when to slice out data
3) Retuning step size
4) Used to find out missing Feed forward variables
5) Used to take decision to windup step test

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Step Test Monitoring

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Retuning Step Size

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Step test completion

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Addition / Deletion of Feed forward variables

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