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GOVERNOR CONTROL SYSTEM

Prepared By : Kartik Fojdar, RIL (DMD)

Governor Control in Steam


Turbine
Governor Control systems are speed control
system of prime movers i.e. industrial steam
turbines.
Steam turbines are used to drive Compressors,
fans, blowers, line shafts etc.
Popular Woodward electronic Governor systems :
WW 509
WW 505
MicroNet 5009 TMR.

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Types of Turbines
Condensing Type : Exhaust pressure less than
ATM pressure, larger in size and power output.
Back pressure Type: Exhaust pressure equal or
more than ATM pressure.

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Types of Turbines
Extraction Type :
Hybrid of basic Condensate and back pressure turbine.
Extracted steam is used for some requirement within
plant. Works as pressure let down station.

Induction Type :
Turbine receives steam at intermediate stage, from by
product of some process in the plant. To get additional
work out of steam before it goes to condensate.

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SITE WISE INSTALLATION SUMMARY


WOODWARD GOVERNOR SPEED CONTROL SYSTEM INSTALLATION SUMMARY
SITE >>

DTA

HMD

PMD

DMD

NMD

VMD

RELENE

Woodward
Governor Model

WW 505

Micronet
5009
WW 509

NA

Micronet 5009
WW 509

WW 509

Hydr. Governor
maint. By
MECH

Hydr. Governor
maint. By
MECH

Over speed
Modules

Protech
203

Protech 203

NA

Protech 203
BN 3300

NA

BN 3300
BN 3500

EG 10P

NA

OST

GOV/ECV
Valve actuators

EOST

MOST
EOST
WW OST

EOST

TM 25 LP

NA

TM 25 LP
EG 10P
EG 3P

NA

Speed controlled by GOV


valve

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Governor Valve

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Governor Control
There are two basic
controls:
Speed control
Extraction pressure
control
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Speed Control
PID control
3 speed inputs
HSS bus
2oo3 OST
All speed sensor failure trip
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Extraction Pressure Control


PID control

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Remote speed control


Speed control via remote set point. Remote set
point is decided by external controller , which
controls process parameter (say.. Suction OR
discharge pressor of compressor)

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Extraction Pressure Control

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Extraction Map

Helps defining HP valve v/s LP valve relationship


Helps to define limits control must keep turbine from exceeding.
Maps power output v/s steam flow

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Ratio - Limiter

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Ratio Limiter
Speed
controller signal

SC

Extraction
controller 1
signal

PCE1

Extraction
controller 2
signal

PCE2

HP driver signal ( % )

IP driver signal ( % )
RATIO
LIMITER

LP driver signal ( % )

1.

HP governor valve opening:


= 0.641*{(SC.PID+61.6)+((PCE1.PID-100)*0.714)+((PCE2.PID-100)*.098)}

2.

IP governor valve opening:


=1.304*{(SC.PID+61.6)-81.6+((PCE1.PID-100)*(-0.2))+((PCE2.PID-100)*.098)}

3.

LP governor valve opening:


= 1.379*{(SC.PID+61.6)-108.6+((PCE1.PID-100)*(-0.2))+((PCE2.PID-100)*.098)}
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LOCAL
PANEL
PLC

VIBRATION
TEMP
SYSTEM
LOCAL
PANEL
DCS

GOVERNOR
CONTROL
ANTISURGE
SYSTEM

MCC
OVER SPEED
DETECTION

ESD

CONTROL SYSTEMS BLOCK DIAGRAM


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System Compliance to international standards like API 612/ API 670

Standard requirements are


1. GCS should have a speed governor, control mechanism,
governor controlled valve (s)
2. Primary function ( unless otherwise specified ) should be
to maintain the turbine speed at a set value by regulating
steam flow through the turbine.
3. GCS shall be separate and independent of any overall system
such as DCS
4. A multi-toothed surface for speed sensing shall be provided.
This surface may be shared by the speed governor, over speed
trip system and tachometer
5. Minimum of two speed sensors ( other than the over speed
s/d system sensors )
6. High signal selection provision
7. One signal failure should initiate an alarm only. The failure
of all elements shall initiate a shut down.

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System Compliance to international standards like API 612/ API 670


8. Design shall include :
1. Slow roll control
2. critical speed band avoidance
3. Manually activated override for testing the over speed
shutdown system
9. Governing system shall provide for both slow roll (typically
400 r/min to 500 r/min) and startup using the Governor
controlled valves
10. Failure of the governing system shall initiate a turbine shutdown.
11. Activation of any shutdown device shall cause the
governor-controlled valve (s) and the trip valve(s)/combined trip and
throttle valve (s) to close and initiate a signal to close non-return valve(s).
12. shutdown system shall prevent opening of the trip valve(s) if the
governor-controlled valve(s) are not fully closed

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System Compliance to international standards like API 612/ API 670


13. Failure of the governing system shall initiate a turbine shutdown.
14. Activation of any shutdown device shall cause the
governor-controlled valve (s) and the trip valve(s)/combined trip and
throttle valve (s) to close and initiate a signal to close non-return valve(s).
15. shutdown system shall prevent opening of the trip valve(s) if the
governor-controlled valve(s) are not fully closed
16. Additional modes of control, such as controlled extraction shall be as
specified by the purchaser.

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Micronet 5009
System Introduction :

Three Kernels containing CPU card, Power supply card, I/O cards
in each of the kernel.
Redundant power supply units to the three kernels.
Duplicated / Triplicated inputs depending on the criticality
Single / Redundant outputs depending on the criticality

Main components:
1. CPU boards
2. TMR main power supply units
3. Kernel power supply boards
4. AIO module
5. AIO FTM
6. MPU and AIO boards ( combo )
7. MPU and AIO FTM
8. DIO boards
9. DIO FTM

Micronet 5009
Maintenance practices (Contd):
1.

Cables and connections:


Once a month, check the cables to make sure they are still in good condition, and
check the connectors to make sure they are plugged in all the way.

2.

Fans:
As a preventive maintenance it is recommended that the main chassis and power chassis
cooling fans be replaced every 50 000 hours, and the cabinet front door fan every 60 000
hours.

3.

Air Filter maintenance:


Cleaning of air filter is required to ensure proper cabinet air flow and cooling.
The filter should be cleaned when it gets dirty; the period between cleanings will depend on

the type of environment the cabinet is located. During the plant planned shut downs, this activi
can be carried out. To clean the filter, remove the filter element from the assembly, wash in
soapy water, and allow to dry before re-installing.
4. Battery check:
Twice every month, inspect the CPU battery(ies) for signs of leakage, swelling, or damage .

EG 10P

Features

Is an electro-hydraulic transducer.
Controls the oil flow to and from the power piston.
The action is through a polarized solenoid.
Position of Actuator is directly proportional to the
input current of the solenoid coil.

EG 3P

Features

Is an electro-hydraulic transducer.
Controls the oil flow to and from the power piston.
The action is through a polarized solenoid.
Position of Actuator is directly proportional to the
input current of the solenoid coil.
Goes to the minimum fuel if electric signal is
interrupted.
Oil for the actuator is taken from the engine
lubricating the system or from a separate sump.
Can be furnished with or without the drive shaft.

TM 25LP
Maintenance practices:
Filter cleaning:
The actuators are supplied with 40 micrometers nominal / 70 micrometers
absolute filter fitting at the supply section.
If the actuator response becomes sluggish, the filter can be suspected for
clogging.
The filter may be removed, cleaned ultrasonically, and back flushed with a
light solvent.
The O-ring needs to be replaced after cleaning the filter.
Note: Do not run the actuator with the inlet filter fitting or the inline filter
removed or bypassed as extensive repairs can be made necessary by only
momentary exposure of the interior of the torque motor to Contaminants.

TM 25LP
Maintenance practices:

Recommended SD maintenance practice:


Cleaning of up stream filters during any opportunity.
Replacement of actuator after 4-5 years and overhaul the
removed unit to keep it as spare.
Provision of 10 micron dual filter in up stream of actator at @ 1m
distance.
GOV and ECV stroke checking (system o/p % v/s current output
v/s actual stroke in mm)

Turbine Trip Parameters

Minimal two card failure


All speed sensor fail
TE-5936 Extraction temperature(HP side) high
TE-5938 Extraction temperature(LP side) high
TE-5934 Exhaust steam temperature high
Protech 203 Over speed trip
PS-5932 Turbine tripped pressure switch
PSHH-5936 Exhaust pressure high high
Micronet Over speed trip
HP Redundancy Manager both I/H converters failure
IP Redundancy Manager both I/H converters failure
LP Redundancy Manager both I/H converters failure
Differential Pressure IP side too high
Differential Pressure HP side too high
Condensate level high high
HMI shutdown command

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Over Speed Trip System


Governor should trip beyond max allowable
speed.
Three type of systems are used:
EOST (stand alone sys)
EOST (Woodward)
MOST
EOST (Woodward) SP < EOST (Stand alone sys)
SP < MOST SP.
Separate sensors for Wood ward speed control
and EOST (Stand alone sys). Three each.
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Over Speed Trip System

Wood ward speed control and WW EOST.

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Three sensors in field.


Used for speed control SIC as well as OST.
HSS bus is used.
No trip if two sensors fail. Only alarm.
Trip if all three sensors fail. Woodward generates MAJOR GOV
FAILURE. Closes GOV and send command to PLC to initiate
trip.

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Over Speed Trip System

Stand alone OS trip system (Stand alone


EOST).
Triplicated, electronic protection systems
that are dedicated and separate from
control system (Ref : API 670)
Two types of system :
Woodward Protect 203
BN system.
Three separate sensors in field.
Senses prime mover speed through
three magnetic pickups continuously.
Activates a trip relay when over
speed condition is detected.
Trip relays connected in 2oo3 logic.
Displays actual speed from each
probe.
Online replacement of single failed
unit.

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Over Speed Trip System


> If MOST and stand alone EOST exists WW OST may be deleted after
consulting OEMs.
> During MOST test during solo run setting of EOST may be increased by
10% over MOST. EOST should not be bypassed during MOST test.
Trip if all three sensors fail. Woodward generates MAJOR GOV
FAILURE. Closes GOV and send command to PLC to initiate
trip.

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Governor control
in
power plant

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Industrial Cogeneration
System

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Combined Cycle

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Gas Turbine
Gas turbine is an engine that uses chemical energy of liquid
or gaseous fuel by internal combustion to produce hot flue
gas. This hot flue gas expands and converts heat into rotary
mechanical energy.
Gas turbine works on the principle of Brayton cycle.
There are three major parts of the gas turbine.
1. Compressor
2. Combustion system
3. Expander turbine

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Brayton Cycle Gas Turbine


Cycle
1 2 isentropic compression

2 3 isobaric process, the compressed air then runs


through a combustion chamber, where fuel is burned,
heating that air
3 4 isentropic expansion
4 1 isobaric process, heat rejection (exhaust)

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Gas Turbine Load


Commands
Gas turbine Fuel energy
Torque
Generator Torque Amps

There are two Breakers:


Generator breaker, when closed connects all machines in droop
mode.
Utility breaker connects all the machines (which are in droop
mode) with the GRID. Incase of load variation, MW export/ import
is done with the GRID.

When utility breaker opens , machines get isolated from GRID, called
Islanding mode. Any load variation is calculated & shared according
to %droop.

If the Gas turbine starts in AUTO with automatic synchronization


selected at the generator panel, the unit will automatically load to a
point known as SPINNING RESERVE. A nominal MW setting used by
the control system as a reference in the absence of any other setting.
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Role of Governor in GTG


For power plant application, Governor has following
roles:
Part-load: vary GT load wrt change in frequency
as per the droop characteristic
Pre-select: Maintain GT output at desired MW.
Isochronous: maintain GT speed at constant
level to maintain frequency.
Base load: Generate maximum power within
limit of Turbine/ Compressor parameters (e.g.
comp inlet temp, comp discharge pressure, GT
exhaust temp)
External Control mode: MW output is maintained
as per external set point.
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Part-load Operation

Why this mode (Droop)?


Without droop, if load increase, speed slows down.
The governor will increase the fuel until the engine speed returns to its
original speed.
Due to combined property of Inertia & Power lag, speed will increase
beyond its original speed setting, causing an overshoot.
Now governor will decrease the speed to correct the overshoot, causing
an undershoot.
Over-correction of speed in both directions (instability) will amplify until
the engine trips

Hence it necessary to stabilize GTG when frequency changes


(system stability) without going to oscillation.
Another advantage is load sharing
Droop speed control is a proportional control , in which fuel
flow in proportion to the difference between actual turbine
speed & the speed reference.
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Droop Mode

Droop is %age of the frequency change required for a governor


to move a unit from no load to full load or vice-versa.
Lower the droop, more responsive a generating unit is to
changes in frequency.
Recommended droop% is 3% to 5%.
A minimum of 2.5% is required to maintain stability in a speeddroop governor.
If all units have the same droop, all will share a load change
equally/ proportionally.
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Droop Governor
Assume
One generator Unit #1 rated 50MW, synchronized with Grid
(generating capacity 8000 MW).
The speed governor for Unit #1 will take 50 8000 or .625%
of any load demand changes that should occur.
Unit #1 is currently generating 37 MW.
Grid operating at 60.00 Hz
An increase in demand of 5 MW occurs
Unit #1 increase its power output by: (0.00625) (5) =
0.03125 MW. Unit #1 will generate = 37.03125 MW.
The other generators (4 % droop characteristic) shares
proportionally the remainder of the load change (i.e. 5 MW - 0
.03125 = 4.96875 MW).
When additional load of 5 MW came on the grid, the system
frequency would droop the following amount: 60.00 - [(.04)
(60) (5) 8000] = 60.00 - .0015 = 59.9985 Hz
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Pre-select Mode
Pre-select: Maintain GT output at desired MW.

Pre-select set point is provided by operator to Governor.


When frequency change occur MW changes as per the
defined droop.
Pre-select mode brings back MW output to defined MW set
point at current frequency.
To be used when our GTs are synchronized with grid supply
(Not running on island mode). With changes in grid
frequency, total power generation is maintained at fixed
internal demand level.

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Isochronous Mode

Force the unit to maintain rated speed/frequency & provide as


much power as required up to the turbines firing temperature
limit (temperature control).
Basically this is a speed control mode. The isochronous
machine will respond to sustain system frequency at 50.00
Hz.
Used only during islanded operation.
Isochronous governor is proportional plus reset controller.

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Base load Mode


Base load:

Generate maximum power within limit of Turbine/


Compressor parameters (e.g. comp inlet temp, comp
discharge pressure, GT exhaust temp)
No set point given for MW or frequency.
Used for optimizing the operation/ power.
Used during power import.

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Load Selection
When selected
1.Preselected
Loads /unloads until the preselected load output is attained.
Once attained , fuel flow will be controlled to maintain that
MW output until another load command is given or until a
Raise or Lower load command is given.
2.Base load
Load / (unload from PEAK) at the normal loading rate until
the unit goes on exhaust temperature control; the unit is at
its nominal rated power output for the ambient conditions.
Fuel flow is regulated to provide the maximum power for
the ambient conditions without overfiring the machine.
As ambient conditions change, compressor inlet
temperature, the units power output will change.
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Load Selection
When selected
3. Peak load
Load at the normal loading rate until the unit goes on peak
exhaust temperature control
As ambient conditions change, compressor inlet
temperature, the units power output will change.
Unit operates at a firing temperature above its design
limit, unit output is increased with a consequent reduction
in the machine maintenance intervals.
1 hour of PEAK operation ~ 6 hours of BASE
operation.

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External control Mode.


When selected
3. Peak load
Load at the normal loading rate until the unit goes on peak
exhaust temperature control
As ambient conditions change, compressor inlet
temperature, the units power output will change.
Unit operates at a firing temperature above its design
limit, unit output is increased with a consequent reduction
in the machine maintenance intervals.
1 hour of PEAK operation ~ 6 hours of BASE
operation.

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Thank You

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Droop Versus Isochronous


Mode

DROOP
Machine will react to the load
variation by changing its
speed.
It is utilized when multiple
machine run in parallel so that
load is shared between the
machines.
For this sharing to be equal
the machine need to have
same droop characteristic.
Typically if a machine has
droop of 4% it means for a
change of 1% in rated speed
the machine takes 25% of its
rated load. This is also referred
to as load control mode of
operation.

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ISOCHRONOUS
Machine is not affected
byload and regardless of
load it will maintain the
frequency.
This mode is also referred
to as frequency control
mode of operation.
In case of systems not
connected to grid it is
required to run at least one
machine in this mode so as
to take care of the load
variation.
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