Workshop Technology

(ME-301) 

It is basically Mechanical Engineering Oriented subjected which focuses on the machining processes ( metal cutting processes) .  It also deals with the operations and maintenance of machines .  In manufacturing plants a separate workshop often supports the production Department in the tool making, maintenance of tools and machines .  However here in our case the sole purpose is to train you on different machines ( Lathe ,Milling etc )basic machining operations and make you aware of different maching processes in Industry

General Safety Rules 
Dress properly for your own physical protection. Use a leather apron, leather glove, and thumb guard. Clothes should not be loose enough to get caught in moving tools . Remove all rings, bracelets, necklaces, etc. Keep loose hair and sleeve cuffs tied back out of the way.

General Safety Rules 
If your work is noisy, wear ear plugs or muffs.  Tools guards and rests should be properly adjusted and used .  Wear disposable rubber gloves when working with solvent-based liquids.  These liquids are strong skin irritants and can cause burns or blisters. Some are absorbed through the skin and can cause serious health problems.

General Safety Rules 
Know your machine ±never operate a machine unless you have been trained in the use of that machine. The first thing which the operator of the machine should find out is the quickest way to stop the machine and he should practice it untill it can be performed instantly and without thinking .

General Safety Rules 
Keep clear of the danger ±keep body parts and garments away from the moving machine parts .Use a push stick or push block to guide work Isolate and lockout machine if adjustment need to be made Don¶t bypass safety guards or device ± make sure they are working and in place .Never remove them

Workshop Safety Rules 
You must wear substantial shoes while working No sandals thongs or other open tope shoes are allowed in the workshop Do not wear loose clothing .Sleeves must be rolled up while operating machine ,No tie Scarves etc Do not wear jewelry ( bracellets,Necklace) or watches while working on machines or observing its operations

Workshop Safety Rules 
Eye protection (goggles) must be worn while operating the machines or observing its operations For some procedures ,gloves or ear muffs must be used Do not try to operate a machine ,if you don not know how to do it

Metal Cutting Physics

Metal Cutting Physics Idealized Chip Formation Built Up Edges Calculating Cutting Speed and Feed

Idealized Chip Formation 
The figure below depicts an idealized, two dimensional view of the metal cutting process. The assumptions in this model are that the tool is perfectly sharp, the cut depth t and the cutting speed V are constant, and that the cut depth is small compared to the cut width

Idealized Chip Formation

Idealized Chip Formation 
In this idealized model, the material layer at the top is formed into a chip by a shearing process in the primary shear zone at AB  The chip slides up the rake face undergoing some secondary plastic flow due to the forces of friction.  This idealized model correctly predicts that cutting force increases with cut depth, material hardness, and friction coefficient.  Cutting forces are inversely proportional to rake angle

Built Up Edges 
One important effect that is not considered in the model above is built up edge.  Under most cutting conditions, some of the cut material will attach to the cutting point.  This tends to cause the cut to be deeper than the tip of the cutting tool and degrades surface finish.  Also, periodically the built up edge will break off and remove some of the cutting tool

Built Up Edges 
Thus, tool life is reduced. In general, built up edge can be reduced by: ‡ Increasing cutting speed ‡ Decreasing feed rate ‡ Increasing ambient work piece temperature ‡ Increasing rake angle ‡ Reducing friction (by applying cutting fluid)

Built Up Edges

Calculating Cutting Speeds and Feeds

Calculating Cutting Speeds and Feeds 
Cutting speed refers to the speed at which the tool point of the cutter moves with respect to the work measured in feet per minute. Feed is the rate at which the work moves into the cutter measured in feed per tooth revolution

Calculating Cutting Speeds and Feeds 
Feeds and speeds affect the time to finish a cut, tool life, finish of the machined surface, and power required of the machine. The Cutting Speed is mostly determined by the material to be cut and the material of the tool .

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements 
Precision is a term that describes an instrument¶s degree of freedom from random errors.  If a large number of readings are taken of the same quantity by a high precision instrument, then the spread of readings will be very small.  Precision is often, though incorrectly, confused with accuracy.  High precision does not imply anything about  measurement accuracy.  A high precision instrument may have a low accuracy.

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements

Measurements 
The accuracy of an instrument is a measure of how close the output reading of the instrument is to the correct value. In practice, it is more usual to quote the inaccuracy.

Calipers 
Calipers are generally used in situations where measurement of dimensions using a rule or tape is not accurate enough.  Fig shows two types of standard caliper. The range of measurement, according to the version used, is up to 600 mm

Inside caliper Calipers

Outside caliper

Divider Caliper 
In the metalworking field divider calipers are used in the process of marking out suitable workpieces. The points are sharpened so that they act as scribers, one leg can then be placed in the dimple created by a center punch And the other leg pivoted so that it scribes a line on the work piece's surface, thus forming an arc or circle.

Divider Caliper

Divider Caliper 
A divider caliper is also used to measure a distance between two points on a map.  The two caliper's ends are brought to the two points whose distance is being measured. The caliper's opening is then either measured on a separate ruler and then converted to the actual distance, or it is measured directly on a scale drawn on the map.  On a nautical chart the distance is often measured on the latitude scale appearing on the sides of the map: one minute of arc of latitude is approximately one nautical mile or 1852 metres

Vernier caliper

Vernier caliper
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Parts of a vernier caliper: 1-Outside jaws: used to measure external diameter or width of an object 2-Inside jaws: used to measure internal diameter of an object 3-Depth probe: used to measure depths of an object or a hole 4-Main scale: gives measurements of up to one decimal place(in cm). 5-Main scale: gives measurements in fraction(in inch) 6-Vernier gives measurements up to two decimal places(in cm) 7-Vernier gives measurements in fraction(in inch) 8-Retainer: used to block movable part to allow the easy transferring a measurement 9-A variation to the more traditional caliper is the inclusion of a vernier scale; this makes it possible to directly obtain a more precise

Vernier caliper 
The vernier scales may include both metric and inch measurements on the upper and lower part of the scale Vernier calipers commonly used in industry provide a precision to a hundredth of a millimetre (10 micrometres), or one thousandth of an inch.

Dial caliper

Dial caliper 
A further refinement to the vernier caliper is the dial caliper  In this instrument, a small gear rack drives a pointer on a circular dial.  Typically, the pointer rotates once every inch, tenth of an inch, or 1 millimetre, allowing for a direct reading without the need to read a vernier scale (although one still needs to add the basic inches or tens of millimeters value read from the slide of the caliper).).

Dial caliper 
The dial is usually arranged to be rotatable beneath the pointer, allowing for "differential" measurements (the measuring of the difference in size between two objects, or the setting of the dial using a master object and subsequently being able to read directly the plus-or-minus variance in size of subsequent objects relative to the master object

Digital caliper 
A refinement now popular is the replacement of the analog dial with an electronic digital display on which the reading is displayed. Some digital calipers can be switched between metric and inch units.

Digital caliper

Engineering Materials

Steel 
Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a carbon content between 0.2% and 1.8% depending on the grade  Carbon is the most cost-effective alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten  Varying the amount of alloying elements and form of their presence in the steel (solute elements, precipitated phase) controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel are improved

Steel 
Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but is also more brittle Alloys with a higher carbon content are known as cast iron because of their lower melting point and castability

Cast Iron 
In the early stages of refining, the Iron contains a lot of carbon and it makes it very fluid in the molten state . So it is cast into ingots and then processed Historically the cast iron was on eof the first materials which was used in the constrruction of large structures The carbon forms as graphite flakes and this makes the material very brittle and but good for casting coplex shapes

Cast Iron 
Cast Iron breaks very easily but very strong when used in compression so it is used widely for making columns , It doesn¶t rust very easily so it is used for decorative out door structures such as garden furnitures

Steel

Engineering Materials

Band saw

saw Band 
A band saw uses a blade consisting of a continuous band of metal with teeth along one edge. Workpieces are fed into the cutting edge on vertical machines The saw may be powered by wind, water, steam, electrical motor . The band rides on two wheels rotating in the same plane.

Band saw 
Band sawing produces uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load Band saws can be used for woodworking metalworking, or for cutting a variety of other materials They are particularly useful for cutting irregular or curved shapes, but can also be used to produce straight cuts

Band saw 
The radius of a curve that can be cut on a particular saw is determined by the width of the band and its lateral flexibility.

Band Saw (types ) 
Metal cutting Band Saw Stone Cutting Band Saw

Belt Sander 
A belt sander is a machine used to remove burrs and rough edges from parts , for finishing purposes.  It consists of an electrical motor that turns a pair of drums on which a seamless loop of sandpaper is mounted.  Belt sanders can be either hand-held, where the sander is moved over the material, or stationary (fixed), where the material is moved to the sanding belt.  Stationary belt sanders are sometimes mounted on a work bench, in which case they are called bench sanders. Stationary belt sanders are often combined with a disc sander.

Belt Sander

Belt Sander 
Belt sanders can have a very aggressive action on wood and are normally used only for the beginning stages of the sanding process,  Or used to rapidly remove material.  Sometimes they are also used for removing paints or finishes from wood.  Fitted with fine grit sand paper, a belt sander can be used to assure a completely smooth surface.

Drill Press

Drill Press 
A drill press is an essential tool for drilling precisely spaced holes or boring to exact depths. It is preferable to a hand drill when the location and orientation of the hole must be controlled accurately . A drill press is composed of a base that supports a column; the column in turn supports a table .

Drill Press 
Work piece can be supported on a table with a vise or hold down clamps or rotary table. Table can be tilted at a certain angle with the help of tilting lever and this is used for angular drilling . The spindle holds a drill chuck to hold the cutting tool (drill bits ,center drills ,deburring tools )

Thread Standards 
The threads are cut by taps and dies conform to a standard for the shape of the threads. American National Standards in National Coarse (NC) OR National Fine (NF) NC has fewer threads per inch than NF NC is common while NF is used in Precision Equipment

Thread Standards 
The most frequently used thread standard is the metric ISO Thread. However, there are other thread standards as well. These are either based on foreign standards or are used for special applications. E.G. in the medical technology, in aeronautical engineering or astronautics.

Thread Standards
± ISO Thread (metric) ‡ Whitworth Thread ‡ Pipe Thread ‡ Trapezoidal Thread ‡ Knuckle Thread ‡ Buttress Thread

Thread Standards

Whitworth Threads

Buttress Fine Thread

Knuckle Thread

ISO Metric Fine Thread

British Association

Lathe Machine

Engine Lathe 
An Engine lathe similar to the one shown in figure is found in every machine shop. It is mostly used for the following maching processes Turning Boring Facing Thread cutting

Engine Lathe
But it may also be used for the following machining processes  Drilling Reaming Knurling Winding Grinding Spinning Spring Winding

Engine Lathe

Engine Lathe 
The work held in the engine lathe can be revolved at any one of a number of different speeds,  Cutting tool can be accurately controlled by hand or power for longitudinal feed and crossfeed.  Longitudinal feed is the movement of the cutting tool parallel to the axis of the lathe;  crossfeed is the movement of the cutting tool perpendicular to the axis of the lathe.

Engine Lathe
Lathe size is determined by two measurements: (1) the diameter of work it will swing (turn) over the ways and  (2) the length of the bed. For example, a 14-inch by 6-foot lathe will swing work up to 14 inches in diameter and has a bed that is 6 feet long.

Engine Lathe (Parts )
Bed and Ways  The bed is the base or foundation of the parts of the lathe.  The main feature of the bed is the ways, which are formed on the bed¶s upper surface and run the full length of the bed.  The ways keep the tailstock and the carriage, which slide on them, in alignment with the headstock

Headstock 
The headstock contains the headstock spindle and the mechanism for driving it.

Engine Lathe (Parts)
Tailstock  The primary purpose of the tailstock is to hold the dead center to support one end of the work being machined.  However, the tailstock can also be used to hold tapered shank drills, reamers, and drill chucks.  It can be moved on the ways along the length of the bed and can be clamped in the desired position by tightening the tailstock clamping nut

Engine Lathe (Parts)

Engine Lathe (Parts)
Carriage The carriage is the movable support for the crossfeed slide and the compound rest. The compound rest carries the cutting tool in the tool post. Figure shows how the carriage travels along the bed over which it slides on the outboard ways.

Engine Lathe (Parts)
Apron The apron is attached to the front of the carriage . It contains the mechanism that controls the movement of the carriage and the crossslide.

Engine Lathe (Parts)
Feed Rod The feed rod transmits power to the apron to drive the longitudinal feed and crossfeed mechanisms.  The feed rod is driven by the spindle through a train of gears.  The ratio of feed rod speed to spindle speed can be varied by using change gears to produce various rates of feed.

Engine Lathe (Parts)

Engine Lathe (Parts)
Lead Screw The lead screw is used for thread cutting.  It has accurately cut Acme threads along its length that engage the threads of halfnuts in the apron when the half-nuts are clamped over it.

Engine Lathe (Accessories and Attachments )
Accessories and Attachments 
Accessories are the tools and equipment used in routine lathe machining operations  Attachments are special fixtures that may be mounted on the lathe to expand the use of the lathe to include taper cutting, milling, and grinding.

Engine Lathe (Accessories and Attachments )
1-Tool Post 2-Tool Holders

LATHE CHUCKS  The lathe chuck is a device for holding lathe work.  It is mounted on the nose of the spindle.  The work is held by jaws which can be moved in radial slots toward the center of the chuck to

Face Plate 
The faceplate is used for holding work that, because of its shape and dimensions, cannot be swung between centers or in a chuck.  The T-slots and other openings on its surface provide convenient anchors for bolts and clamps used in securing the work to it.  The faceplate is mounted on the nose of the spindle.

Faceplate

Engine Lathe (Accessories and Attachments )

Lathe Machine (3-jaw chuck)

Engine Lathe 
The basic, simplest and most versatile lathe. This machine tool is manually operated that is why it requires skilled operators. Suitable for low and medium production, and for repair works.

Engine Lathe

Engine Lathe 
There are two tool feed mechanism in the engine lathes. These cause the cutting tool to move when engaged. The lead screw will cause the apron and cutting tool to advance quickly. This is used for cutting threads, and for moving the tool quickly. The feed rod will move the apron and cutting tool slowly forward. This is largely used for most of the turning operations

Engine Lathe 
Work is held in the lathe with a number of methods, used to grasp parts with irregular shapes: ‡ Between two centres. The workpiece is driven by a device called a dog; The method is ‡ suitable for parts with high length-to-diameter ratio

Turret lathes 
These machines are capable of carrying out multiple cutting operations on the same workpiece. Several cutting tools are mounted on a tetra-, penta-, or hexagonal turret, which replaces the tailstock. These tools can be rapidly brought into action against the work piece one by one by indexing the turret

Turret lathes

Lathe Machine

Maching Processes ( Turning)

Lathe Machine( Maching Operations) 
Turning is a machining process to produce parts round in shape by a single point tool on lathes.  The tool is fed either linearly in the direction parallel or perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the work piece,  Or along a specified path to produce complex rotational shapes. 

The primary motion of cutting in turning is the rotation of the work piece, and the secondary motion of cutting is the feed motion.

Lathe Machine( Maching Operations
‡ Cutting conditions in turning Cutting speed in turning V in m/s is related to the rotational speed of the workpiece by the equation: V = DN where D is the diameter of the workpiece, m; N is the rotational speed of the workpiece, rev/s.

Lathe Machine 
   Threading Different possibilities are available to produce a thread on a lathe. Threads are cut using lathes by advancing the cutting tool at a feed exactly equal to the thread pitch. The single-point cutting tool cuts in a helical band, which is actually a thread. The procedure calls for correct settings of the machine, and also that the helix be restarted at the same location each time if multiple passes are required to cut the entire depth of thread. The tool point must be ground so that it has the same profile as the thread to be cut. 

Lathe Machine

Machining Processes
Operations in turning

Machining Processes
Knurling This is not a machining operation at all, because it does not involve material removal.  Instead, it is a metal forming operation used to produce a regular crosshatched pattern in the work surface.

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